twentieth-century parliamentary bloc in lebanon.
The Constitutional Bloc was formed in 1936 to call for the restoration of the constitution in Lebanon after its suspension by French mandate authorities. It was headed by Bishara al-Khuri, who championed the cause of Lebanon's independence. Although the bloc cannot be considered a political party, it did not differ from other political organizations in Lebanon in terms of its personality-oriented structure. Its members were drawn from the commercial and political elite, who did not agree with the views of Emile Eddé, a supporter of French policies in Lebanon. It was most active in Mount Lebanon and Beirut, among Maronites and Druze. After 1941, the bloc became identified with British policy in the Middle East. The cohesiveness of the bloc, which was based on the shared goal of independence, quickly splintered after al-Khuri was elected president in 1943. He continued to use the bloc as a tool against his well-organized enemies. It continued to operate as a political force, with limited influence and appeal, into the 1960s. After al-Khuri retired, his son Khalil al-Khuri assumed leadership of the bloc. With the outbreak of the Lebanese civil war in 1975, the bloc ceased to exist, and Khalil retired to France.
see also eddÉ, emile; khuri, bishara al-; lebanese civil war (1975–1990).
"Constitutional Bloc." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/constitutional-bloc
"Constitutional Bloc." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved September 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/constitutional-bloc
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.