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Bacharéis, term employed in nineteenth-century Brazil to designate all those who had graduated from an educational institution. More specificially, it referred to graduates in law from Coimbra University or from one of the Brazilian law schools, São Paulo or Olinda. This educational experience provided them with a common cultural and political outlook that was inherited from the Portuguese Enlightenment. During the reign of Pedro II (1840–1889), the bacharéis occupied all the important positions in the state bureaucracy and distinguished themselves as ministers, senators, representatives, and attorneys. They became the most evident symbol of the political world of the elite.

See alsoEducation: Overview .


Alberto Venancio Filho, Das arcadas ao bacharelismo (1982).

Richard Graham, "Locating Power," in his Patronage and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Brazil (1990).

Additional Bibliography

Abreu, Sérgio França Adorno de. Os aprendizes do poder: O bacharelismo liberal na política brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1998.

Kirkendall, Andrew J. Class Mates: Male Student Culture and the Making of a Political Class in Nineteenth-Century Brazil. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

                              LÚcia M. Bastos P. Neves

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