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Tarquinius the name of the semi-legendary Etruscan kings of ancient Rome; anglicized name Tarquin. Tarquinius Superbus, ‘Tarquin the Proud’, reigned c.534–510 bc. Noted for his cruelty, he was expelled from the city after his son's rape of Lucretia, and the Republic was founded. He repeatedly, but unsuccessfully, attacked Rome, assisted by Lars Porsena.