CASABLANCA CONFERENCE. From 14 to 24 January 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, together with their military staffs, met in Casablanca, French Morocco. The conferees agreed to pursue military operations in Sicily, to continue the heavy bombing offensive against Germany, and to establish a combined staff in London to plan a large invasion of France across the English Channel. They secured the promise of Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French, to cooperate with General Henri Giraud, whom Roosevelt was grooming as leader of the French forces in Africa. The leaders endorsed an unconditional surrender policy, which they defined as "the total elimination of German and Japanese war power."
Kimball, Warren F. "Casablanca: The End of Imperial Romance." In The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.
———. Forged in War: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Second World War. New York: William Morrow, 1997.
Richard A. Smith