A Tested Government: 1793–97

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A Tested Government: 1793–97

George Washington (1732–1799; served 1789–97) was inaugurated for a second term as U.S. president on March 4, 1793, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Having spent his first term guiding the creation of a new government, Washington hoped to focus more on foreign policy issues during his second term. However, he would be faced with challenges both at home and abroad.

By 1793, two political factions (groups of people who hold viewpoints on political matters different from other groups) had formed in the United States. The Federalists were led by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804), and the Republicans were followers of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826). The factions first emerged during debates over Hamilton's economic policies. Each side looked upon the other as a danger to the republic. A republic is a country governed by the consent of the people and for the benefit of the people through elected representatives. During Washington's second term, foreign developments increased the political gap between the Federalists and the Republicans (the party later renamed as the Democratic-Republicans).

French Revolution

In July 1789, as the new U.S. government was starting to take shape, crowds of French citizens stormed the Bastille, a Paris prison, releasing the seven prisoners held there at that time and capturing stored arms and munitions. This event marked the start of the French Revolution (1789–99), a major rebellion against the French monarchy (absolute rule by one person). The French people sought personal liberties such as freedom of speech, much as the Americans had done during their fight for independence in the previous decade.

Words to Know

aristocracy: A government or ruling class made up of royalty and wealthy individuals.

Federalists: Those who supported a strong central government for the United States and promoted adoption of the U.S. Constitution during its ratification process.

impressment: A long-standing British practice of seizing sailors from foreign ships and forcing them into military service on British warships.

neutrality: A political policy of not publicly favoring any one warring nation over the other and not taking part in the conflict.

political factions: Groups of people who hold viewpoints on political matters different from other groups.

reexport: The practice of importing certain items (such as coffee, sugar, pepper, and cocoa) from one country and then exporting them to other markets.

republic: A country governed by the consent of the people and for the benefit of the people through elected representatives.

France had long been ruled by a monarchy and dominated by wealthy French nobility (aristocracy, or a government or ruling class made up of royalty and wealthy individuals) and clergy of the Catholic Church. In the early 1600s, the French monarchy had introduced a system of taxes that put an unfair burden on the French working class. Taxes grew more and more burdensome over the next two centuries, and French workers grew weary of the hard life they were living. In the eighteenth century, citizens became interested in the ideas of equality and freedom expressed by social philosophers of the Enlightenment (see Chapter 3). Enlightenment philosophy taught that people could solve society's problems by using their ability to reason; Enlightenment philosophers also pointed out that people did not need kings or religious leaders to rule them. Then the American Revolution (1775–83) made the actual pursuit of these ideas a reality. Within only a few years, the French people rose in opposition to the monarchy, the nobility, and the Catholic Church.

By 1793, the French monarchy was overthrown, and France was proclaimed a republic. The revolutionaries had won. However, victory brought increased bloodshed as the victorious rebel leaders began purging the nation of all real or potential political opponents, and the new leadership put on hold the republican reforms. Monarchs of other European nations feared that the success of the revolutionaries in America and France might inspire other common people to rise up against their rulers. Therefore, several monarchs sent their armies to the borders of France to keep revolutionaries from entering their countries. Within France's borders, resistance to the revolutionary movement remained, and there was conflict within the movement itself as different revolutionary groups struggled for control over the newly proclaimed republic. Finally, a radical revolutionary faction known as the Jacobins gained power. Under the leadership of Maximilien de Robespierre (1758–1794), the new French government struck out with a vengeance against suspected domestic enemies and foreign armies.

The period of bloodshed following the French Revolution is known as the Reign of Terror. It lasted for one year, from June 1793 to July 1794. The French king, Louis XVI (1754–1793; reigned 1774–92), was beheaded, as were thousands of his supporters. Perhaps as many as forty thousand people were killed, most beheaded at the guillotine. Many were killed because they expressed political opinions against the revolutionaries; others were executed only on the suspicion that they did not support the new government. Besides silencing thousands of individuals, the government broke from the Roman Catholic Church, which had been an integral part of the previous monarchy rule. The Catholic Church was France's biggest landowner. The government seized the church property and sold it to help pay off the national debt. Domination over other Christian clergy also followed, including the imprisonment or killing of many priests throughout the country as part of the break from the old social order as well as a hastily declared war on the British monarchy in hopes of stirring a revolution in Britain.

The U.S. population had generally supported the French struggle for liberty. However, after the revolutionaries achieved victory, a large portion of the American public quickly lost enthusiasm for the French republic. Hamilton and the Federalists wanted the U.S. government to maintain strong trade relations with Britain, and they feared that the ongoing violence of the revolutionaries in France could negatively affect the British monarchy. Jefferson and the Republicans still felt a strong allegiance to France, because France had backed the American colonies during the American Revolution. In addition, the Republicans still considered Britain to be an enemy of the United States. They feared the British aristocracy and its potential dominance over U.S. affairs. Jefferson considered the rampant bloodletting in France to be part of the price of freedom.

American neutrality

Jefferson pressed President Washington to join France in its newly declared fight against Britain. However, Washington would not agree to this course of action. He responded to the brewing hostilities between France and Britain by issuing the Neutrality Proclamation in April 1793. In this document, he declared that the United States would be neutral—it would not join the conflict between France and Britain and would not favor either country in any way while the conflict continued. Not surprisingly, the proclamation greatly upset the Republicans.

Just after Washington issued the proclamation, the newly appointed French foreign minister to the United States, Edmond Charles Genet (1763–1834), arrived. Genet misinterpreted Republican criticism of the proclamation; he thought the criticism indicated that most Americans wanted to support France. Genet decided to tour the country and rally popular support for France's war effort; he even tried to raise a private army of U.S. citizens. However, by going straight to the people for assistance rather than to the U.S. government, he trampled formal government protocols (proper procedures). Even Jefferson was offended by Genet's freewheeling approach. Relations between the two nations became more strained. Upon Washington's request, France relieved Genet of his duties and assigned a more politically intelligent minister to the United States. Fearing arrest and execution back home by a newly established French leadership who distrusted him, Genet chose to remain in the United States and later married the daughter of New York governor and future vice president George Clinton (1739–1812).

The European events caused great political strain within the United States. Washington's administration favored maintaining good ties with Britain, and Hamilton believed a break with Britain would economically devastate the United States. However, American organizations in support of France continued to form; there were thirty-five in existence by late 1793. Calling themselves Democratic-Republican societies, they served as auxiliary (support) organizations for the Republicans. These groups intensified political debates between Hamiltonians and Jeffersonians. Still refusing to take sides, Washington strove to maintain the course of neutrality over the next several years.

Whiskey Rebellion

Other problems were brewing within the United States as well. Hamilton's steep whiskey tax, established in 1791, had caused great resentment among rural Americans. The resentment reached a peak in the summer of 1794. From Pennsylvania to Georgia, frontier farmers began to disrupt collection of the taxes by intimidating government revenue collectors and damaging their office buildings. This episode of defiance is known as the Whiskey Rebellion.

Needing to demonstrate the strength of the new government in maintaining law and order, President Washington chose western Pennsylvania as the best spot to challenge the rebellion. Washington requested that court orders be issued to the protesters; the orders required the protesters to appear in federal district court. They refused, and the rebellion gained strength. Several thousand armed settlers converged near Pittsburgh. In response, Washington called out thirteen thousand militiamen from several states. This was approximately the same number of troops that made up the entire Continental Army in the American Revolution. Washington, Hamilton, and Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee (1756–1818) led the force to the Monongahela Valley in western Pennsylvania to end the rebellion. The rebels peacefully melted away when they saw the federal show of force.

President Washington's decisive action was the first occurrence of the U.S. government using military force over American citizens. (This occasion was also the only time a U.S. president still in office personally led a military force in the field.) Though Washington was successful in peacefully ending the rebellion and demonstrating the new government's authority, Republicans were greatly alarmed at his heavy-handed response to the farmers.

The Jay Treaty

The event that was perhaps most influential in the nation's growing political division was the signing of the Jay Treaty with Great Britain in 1794. In reaction to the French declaration of war in 1793, Britain had seized some three hundred American ships doing trade with the French West Indies. Britain had also captured U.S. sailors and forced them into military service on British warships, a practice known as impressment (see box).

In addition to these issues, there were other tensions left over from the American Revolution. For example, ten years after losing their battle with the American revolutionaries, the British defiantly retained soldiers at their fur-trading outposts east of the Mississippi River, in the Northwest Territory, an area governed by the United States since the end of the war. The Northwest Territory included land that makes up the present-day states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota. From these posts, the British encouraged Native American resistance to new U.S. settlement. There were also tensions involving trade issues: U.S. merchants wanted compensation from Britain for the ships and goods Britain seized during the war. They also wanted to trade with the British colonies in the West Indies, but Britain had cut off all colonial trade with America after losing the war. Lastly, Southerners demanded compensation (payment) for the slaves taken by the British during the war (see box).

Washington decided it was time to relieve tensions with Britain. He sent Supreme Court chief justice John Jay (1745–1829) to Britain to negotiate an agreement. Jay was experienced, having been part of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Paris with Britain in 1783. However, this time Jay and the United States were clearly in a weak bargaining position with little military capability. Following the end of the Revolution, the Continental Congress had disbanded the navy and greatly reduced the army.

Impressment of American Sailors

Prior to the American Revolution, Britain had a long-standing practice of forcibly taking sailors from coastal towns and merchant ships and pressing (forcing) them into military service on British ships. Britain ruled the high seas with its mighty fleet and routinely captured sailors from the American colonies. After their defeat in the American Revolution, the British quit raiding coastal towns but continued raiding merchant ships. British sailors would board a ship at sea and search for British deserters, criminals, and citizens. They would forcibly seize these individuals and put them into military service on British warships.

Britain had the top navy in the world, and few nations could match its strength or effectively resist these practices. Britain did not recognize U.S. naturalization laws, which let British immigrants to the United States apply for American citizenship after five years of residence. Therefore, many of those seized from American merchant ships were naturalized U.S. citizens. Seamen on American ships had to prove on the spot that they were U.S. citizens by birth.

The practice of impressment was a major source of irritation to the United States through the 1790s. The United States sought the release of almost three hundred seamen who had been seized in a nine-month period between 1796 and 1797. Most of them were naturalized U.S. citizens. By 1808, Britain had impressed over six thousand American sailors. Impressment was a key factor that led the United States into war with Britain in 1812. Britain eventually abandoned the practice in the 1830s.

Jay did obtain some concessions. Britain once again promised to withdraw from its posts in the Northwest Territory, pay damages to the United States for ships seized during the war, and open up British markets for trade. In return, the United States promised to pay some prewar debts. However, Britain refused to recognize that the United States had any right of a neutral nation to trade free of British war restrictions as declared by the United States, and the treaty did not resolve the impressment of American sailors.

Knowing the Jay Treaty would be controversial, Washington kept the terms of the treaty secret. He even called a secret session of the U.S. Senate on June 8, 1795, to consider ratification. However, Benjamin Franklin Bache (1769–1798), grandson of Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) and editor of the Republican newspaper Aurora, obtained a copy of the treaty's terms and published a summary on June 29. Intense public debate followed—something Washington had hoped to avoid.

Payment for Lost Slaves

During the American Revolution, the British tried to weaken the economy of the Southern colonies by offering freedom to slaves who escaped from colonial farms and joined the British army. More than three hundred freed slaves fought for one British regiment in Virginia. At the end of the war, many freed slaves fled with the Loyalists and the British army. Overall, some thirty thousand slaves left Virginia plantations with the British, and twenty-five thousand left South Carolina. Southern planters believed the British should pay them for the loss of the slaves when the war ended, but ten years after the peace treaty was signed, they still had not received any compensation.

Reaction to the treaty was strongly negative in the United States. From Jefferson's perspective, the treaty meant that shippers, who were largely Northern Federalists, would receive payments from Britain for ships lost to British forces during the Revolutionary War while others, to large extent Republican Southerners who had gained control of the Southern plantations, would be forced to pay Britain for property seized during the war from those who remained loyal to Britain. In addition, the British agreed to withdraw from forts they had already agreed with Jay to withdraw from in the Treaty of Paris eleven years earlier. The Jay Treaty upset the French as much as the Republicans, because neither wanted to see the United States and Britain in close alignment. Opposition to the treaty heightened interest in the Democratic-Republican societies and their antiadministration activities.

Despite substantial public opposition, the Senate ratified the Jay Treaty on August 14, 1795. Washington signed the treaty shortly afterward with strong encouragement from Hamilton. Disputes over the treaty extended into Washington's own Cabinet and led to the resignation of Edmund Randolph (1753–1813), who had replaced Jefferson as secretary of state in December 1793.

The treaty brought the United States and Britain closer together since before the Revolution. This was one of the goals Hamilton had hoped to achieve when he introduced his economic policies in 1790 and 1791. Hamilton retired from public service in late January 1795 before the Jay Treaty was ratified, but he believed he had set the nation on a course toward economic and financial prosperity by strengthening relations with Britain. Hamilton remained the leader of the Federalists.

Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution

During George Washington's second term, concerns arose not only over the administration's policies such as the Jay Treaty, but also over fears of an increasingly powerful Supreme Court. The Eleventh Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution to limit the power of the federal courts over state governments. The amendment came about because of a legal case that arose in the South shortly after the American Revolution. A South Carolina merchant sued the state of Georgia for payment on clothing he supplied during the war. The state of Georgia refused to appear in court, claiming that the merchant had no legal basis to sue a state in which he did not reside. The case rose to the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1793, the Court ruled in Chisholm v. Georgia that federal courts had authority to rule in cases involving citizens of one state suing another state. The Anti-Federalists were alarmed that the national government's courts had such power over states.

In immediate reaction to the Supreme Court decision, Congress proposed an amendment to the Constitution that would limit federal judicial authority over state governments. The amendment was ratified by the states on February 7, 1795. It states that the federal courts have no jurisdiction (authority to hear a case) in legal cases that involve citizens of one state filing suit against another state, or citizens of foreign countries filing suit against states. This was the first time in the nation's history that a constitutional amendment overrode a Supreme Court decision.

When Congress reconvened in December 1795, the political battle over the treaty erupted again. The Republicans focused on blocking related legislation, including funding that would support actions under the treaty. In the spring of 1796, after several months of further debate, the House narrowly passed legislation putting the treaty into full effect.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

During his second term, Washington also faced the increasingly violent Native American resistance to American settlement west of the Appalachians, in the area known as the Northwest Territory. The United States had obtained the Northwest Territory from Britain in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the agreement that officially ended the American Revolution. Following the American Revolution, relations with Native Americans in the Northwest Territory were relatively peaceful until 1786. However, as the number of American settlers kept increasing, Native American groups formed alliances to resist the expanding settlement. They were encouraged by British troops at fur-trading posts.

In 1790 and 1791, initial efforts to suppress the Native American resistance resulted in several major victories by the Native Americans. Washington became greatly concerned over the increasing effectiveness of Native American resistance. In 1792, Washington ordered General "Mad Anthony" Wayne (1745–1796), a veteran of the American Revolution, to gather a force and prepare to challenge the Native Americans.

General Wayne's forces prepared for their campaign against the Native Americans at Fort Washington in present-day Cincinnati, Ohio. Meanwhile, negotiations for a peaceful resolution proceeded in the summer of 1793 as U.S. representatives met with leaders of the Shawnee and Delaware Indians. When the negotiations ended in failure, General Wayne led his new army of three thousand soldiers to engage the Native American forces. They built a series of forts along the way. The Native American army, made up of fifteen hundred fighters from numerous Native American groups, established a defensive position near present-day Toledo, Ohio, where a number of trees had been blown over by a major storm. Little Turtle (c. 1752–1812) of the Miami was one of the Native American leaders. A British outpost was nearby.

The U.S. forces dealt a quick, crushing blow to the Native American force on August 20, in a fight that became known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Each side lost about forty men. The Native American fighters fell back to the British fort, but the British refused assistance despite their earlier promises to help. After the battle, the U.S. troops destroyed Native American villages and crops in the area before withdrawing.

One outcome of the battle was realization among the Native Americans that British troops would not back them up. The Native American resistance had suffered a major defeat, and the British were beginning to withdraw from the area in accordance with the terms of the Jay Treaty. These two facts meant that the region north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River was now much safer for American settlement. The United States and the tribes of the region signed the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. With this treaty, the Native Americans gave up much of present-day Ohio. However, one Native American leader, Tecumseh (1768–1813) of the Shawnee, refused to sign the treaty. He would lead future resistance efforts.

Pinckney's Treaty

The Jay Treaty led to the United States signing a treaty with Britain's ally, Spain. Spain still held considerable territory in North America, including Florida and the Gulf Coast region. The United States sought free access to the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans for the American farmers who settled in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. The Mississippi was the only route these farmers could use to profitably transport produce to East Coast markets. Cargo traveled down the Mississippi to New Orleans and was then shipped around Florida to reach East Coast destinations.

Washington asked the U.S. minister to Great Britain, Thomas Pinckney (1750–1828), to negotiate a treaty of friendship with Spain. Pinckney was the former governor of South Carolina and the younger brother of Founding Father and future Federalist presidential candidate Charles Cotes-worth Pinckney (1746–1825). The goal of his trip to Spain was to solve lingering problems regarding navigation of the Mississippi River and to resolve a long-standing dispute over the northern border of Florida.

The resulting Pinckney's Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo, was a major political victory for the Federalists. Spain agreed to a northern Florida boundary that lay where the present state boundary exists between Georgia and Florida. This was farther south than Spain had wanted. The boundary extended west to Louisiana. The United States was also guaranteed navigation rights on the Mississippi and in the port of New Orleans. In addition, Spain agreed not to encourage Native American resistance against American settlements in the lower Mississippi River valley. Despite its weakening military standing, Spain maintained its North American holdings.

Washington submitted Pinckney's Treaty to the Senate for approval on February 26, 1796, and the senators voted to approve it on March 7. The Jay Treaty had renewed international trade with Britain, and Pinckney's treaty opened the Mississippi River for transportation of produce from western U.S. settlements. Together the two treaties greatly improved America's economic opportunities. Finally, the Florida boundary resolution gave the United States a bit more land, which was officially named the Mississippi Territory in 1798.

Election of 1796

With the November elections approaching, the public was aware that Federalist policies had given the nation a much stronger position than it held seven years earlier, when the new Constitution first took effect. Anger over the Jay Treaty was decreasing through 1796. The Native American threat in the Northwest Territory had ended with the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, and Washington had personally led some thirteen thousand militiamen to western Pennsylvania to quell a farmer rebellion. Pinckney's treaty with Spain in 1795 established a Florida boundary that had been under dispute, ended Spanish support of Native American resistance against American settlers in the western United States, and opened the port of New Orleans to American shipping. Under Federalist leadership, western U.S. lands were secure, the new government was up and running, and the country was in good financial shape with strong trade revenue and rising wages.

Nonetheless, the Republicans, now calling themselves Democratic-Republicans, had support among the working class, and they were good at organizing around local political issues. Composed largely of wealthy merchants and well educated citizens from the Northeast, the Federalists were not as politically able to make a connection with the general population. The presidential election of 1796 was the first U.S. election fought along political party lines. Actual party organization had not yet developed to any large degree, but the Jay Treaty had cemented the division between Democratic-Republicans and Federalists.

President Washington published his Farewell Address in a Philadelphia newspaper on September 19, 1796, after deciding not to run for a third term as president. Washington's vice president for both terms, John Adams (1735–1826), was the assumed successor. Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804), the recognized leader of the Federalists, was too unpopular and controversial to run for president. However, Hamilton was not a strong supporter of Adams. Adams lacked the personal charm of other political leaders such as Washington and Jefferson. At this time, both presidential and vice presidential candidates appeared on the same ballot listing. Therefore, the two political factions had to carefully select who they wanted to get the most votes for the presidency, and who they wanted to come in second for the vice presidency. To attract Southern votes for a desired second-place finish, the Federalists selected Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina. The Democratic-Republicans naturally turned to Thomas Jefferson. For his running mate, they selected Aaron Burr (1756–1836) of New York, a bitter political enemy of Hamilton.

During this period of history, it was not considered appropriate for political candidates to actively campaign for themselves. Washington had set the model by reluctantly accepting the responsibility of being president only after he was chosen on every ballot. Therefore, Adams and Jefferson made no public speeches seeking voters' support. However, the Democratic-Republicans ran a strong campaign in support of Jefferson, making negative attacks on the character of Adams and Washington. Quietly, Hamilton supported Pinckney more than Adams, and the Democratic-Republicans did little to promote Burr.

The election results were closer than Adams had anticipated. He won with seventy-three electoral votes, Jefferson came in second with sixty-eight, Pinckney received fifty-nine, and Burr got only thirty. A unique situation was now apparent. Because the Constitution did not anticipate political parties and the presidential and vice presidential candidates were on the same ballot, the country had elected a Federalist president and a Democratic-Republican vice president. The Federalists maintained majorities in both houses of Congress.

Trade grows

When war broke out in Europe in 1793, foreign markets suddenly opened up for U.S. goods again. Through a foreign policy of neutrality and new treaties with Spain and Britain, the nation began experiencing significant economic growth and financial independence. The combination of war abroad and peace at home over the next several years stimulated large profits. American ships replaced British and French ships in trade with the West Indies and European markets. Thanks to increased demand and Hamilton's economic reforms, U.S. shippers saw their net earnings rise from $5 million in 1790 to $30 million by 1802. Exports of American goods and produce increased from $20 million to $108 million by 1807.

Another major factor driving the economy in the mid-1790s was the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney (see Chapter 11). This device helped planters separate seeds from cotton, making cotton a highly profitable cash crop. Large amounts of cotton were exported from the ports of Charleston, South Carolina, and Savannah, Georgia, and later from New Orleans.

American shippers also increased their reexport of goods. Reexporting meant importing items such as coffee, sugar, pepper, and cocoa from the West Indies, then exporting them to Europe and other markets. New England, New York, and Philadelphia ports were heavily involved in the reexport business. The value of goods reexported from the United States rose from less than $1 million in 1790 to almost $60 million in 1807.

This rise of commerce (trade) increased growth of other industries. Farmers, shippers, shipbuilders, warehouses, docks, banks, and insurance companies prospered. The tonnage of American shipping involved in trade grew from 355,000 tons in 1790 to over 1 million tons in 1807. Profits were often invested in new manufacturing ventures. This rise in prosperity in America increased the demand for goods manufactured in Britain, further increasing business for shippers.

Before Hamilton's economic policies took effect in the 1790s, American shippers were insured by British companies. However, following the establishment of the First Bank of the United States in 1791, the Insurance Company of North America was created in Philadelphia. Many more marine insurance companies were established, including about forty in Boston and Hartford, Connecticut. The number of investment companies also increased, primarily in the Northeast. Hamilton and the Federalists had established a solid national economy.

Profits with risks

Shipping and commerce during a time of war were highly profitable but also hazardous. The United States maintained that its declaration of neutrality gave American shippers the right to pursue international trade as long as war materials were not involved. However, Britain and France did not recognize this neutrality right. They introduced tough measures to stop U.S. commerce from going to each other's ports during the mid-1790s. British superiority on the seas led to the seizure of a thousand U.S. ships and their crew. In addition, France seized some five hundred U.S. ships. The United States had no navy capable of defending the trade ships, yet commerce continued despite the losses. These growing international problems faced Adams at the start of his presidency.

The young nation had faced tough challenges during Washington's second term of office, both at home and abroad. The federal government showed its ability to negotiate treaties with foreign countries and Native American tribes. As a result, American citizens were safer, and national self-confidence was building. But international confrontations lay ahead.

For More Information


Achenbach, Joel. The Grand Idea: George Washington's Potomac and the Race to the West. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.

Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Knopf, 2004.

Harper, John Lamberton. American Machiavelli: Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Randall, Willard Sterne. Alexander Hamilton: A Life. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

Sword, Wiley. President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest, 1790–1795. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Web Sites

The Battle of Fallen Timbers.http://www.fallentimbersbattlefield.com/ (accessed on August 4, 2005).

"French Revolution." Internet Modern History Sourcebook.http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html (accessed on August 4, 2005).

Whiskey Rebellion—Whiskey Insurrection.http://www.whiskeyrebellion.org/ (accessed on August 4, 2005).