Rules of Engagement
The Laws of War (LOW) include international treaties and customary practices that guide civilized nations. The basic LOW principles of necessity, proportionality, and avoiding collateral damage are the fundamentals that guide the drafting of ROE for all U.S. military operations.
In the 1980s, a series of incidents caused a reexamination of ROE for U.S. forces. The multinational force ROE in Beirut in 1983 restricted sentries from loading their weapons without instructions from a commissioned officer. This rule was in effect when a suicide truck‐bomber ran the gate of the U.S. compound at the Beirut airport, destroying the Marine barracks and killing 241 Marines. In another incident, ambiguous ROE for the warship USS Vincennes contributed to the destruction of a civilian Iranian airliner and the death of all aboard on 3 July 1988. After an extensive review, the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1994 approved new Standing Rules of Engagement (SROE) to replace the Peacetime Rules of Engagement (PROE) in use since 1988. The SROE provide for self‐defense whenever U.S. forces are subjected to a hostile act or when there is clear evidence of hostile intent.
Military lawyers are usually involved in the preparation and dissemination of ROE, but guidance on the use of force is ultimately the commander's responsibility. When U.S. forces engage in multinational or United Nations– sponsored operations, U.S. policy now requires effective ROE that provide adequately for both mission accomplishment and self‐defense.
[See also Peacekeeping.]
Major Mark S. Martins , U.S. Army, Rules of Engagement for Land Forces: A Matter of Training, Not Lawyering, Military Law Review (Winter 1994).
Colonel F. M. Lorenz , U.S. Marine Corps, Forging Rules of Engagement, Military Review (November–December 1995), p. 17.
F. M. Lorenz
"Rules of Engagement." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rules-engagement
"Rules of Engagement." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved May 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rules-engagement
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.