Skip to main content

rules of correspondence

rules of correspondence A major problem for empirical researchers is the nature of the connection between the language of theory and the language of observation. Rules of correspondence is a term sometimes applied to the means, criteria, and assumptions underlying attempts to connect these two levels, by means of common expressions (see B. Hindess The Use of Official Statistics in Sociology, 1973
). In sociology, the passage from observation to conceptualization and back again requires a close examination of the manner in which our observations are organized and categorized (for example according to statistical criteria, tacit knowledge, or background expectancies), as well as to the operationalization of the concepts deployed to organize data.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"rules of correspondence." A Dictionary of Sociology. . 23 Apr. 2019 <>.

"rules of correspondence." A Dictionary of Sociology. . (April 23, 2019).

"rules of correspondence." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved April 23, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.