The Old Southwest was the early name for the territories that were acquired by the United States from Spain in the Adams-Onis Treaty (also called the Transcontinental Treaty) of 1819. The region included present–day Florida and the southern parts of Alabama and Mississippi.
The Spanish who first colonized the Old Southwest referred to the region simply as East and West Florida. Unfortunately, the Spanish monarch had only a weak hold on the Floridas and many Americans had settled there. In 1811 U.S. settlers in West Florida rebelled and declared their independence. President James Madison (1809–1817) ordered the Governor of Orleans Territory (gained in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803) to take possession of West Florida. This action provided impetus for the U.S. government to claim the East Florida territory, which would allow the country to organize all its territory east of the Mississippi River.
Negotiations between Spain and the United States were led by John Quincy Adams (1767–1848), the U.S. Secretary of State, and Luis de Onis (1762–1827), Spain's Minister to the United States. Though the United States gained the Old Southwest, it also made some concessions to Spain in establishing the boundary between Spanish and American claims from Texas to the Pacific Ocean. The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., in 1819 and was approved by the governments of both countries two years later. Plantation owners largely settled the Old Southwest during the 1800s. Later the region became the state of Florida (admitted to the Union in 1845) and formed parts of what would become Alabama (1819) and Mississippi (1817).
"Old Southwest." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 9, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/old-southwest
"Old Southwest." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Retrieved December 09, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/old-southwest
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.