Office of Emergency Management
OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
Office of Emergency Management (OEM) was an executive branch office that coordinated defense activities for all government agencies except the War and Navy Departments. It was established by an administrative order on May 25, 1940, in accordance with an executive decree issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945). OEM created a number of federal agencies that played a critical role on the American home front during World War II (1939–1945). Three of the most important such agencies were the War Production Board, (WPB) the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD), and the Office of War Information (OWI). WPB mobilized the domestic economy, encouraged industrial expansion, and developed policies to regulate nearly every facet of military and civilian production. OCD was in charge of integrating federal, state, local, and territorial efforts aimed at boosting morale and reducing the risks presented by internal and external enemies of the United States. OWI disseminated information to the media about the government's wartime policies and closely monitored the content of Hollywood films to screen for unpatriotic material that might be harmful to the Allied cause. Although OEM is presently listed as inactive by the United States Government Manual, its responsibilities have been largely assumed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was established in 1979.