Fellowship of Reconciliation
In World War I, FOR led by Gilbert A. Beaver, Edward W. Evans, and Charles J. Rhoades, assisted conscientious objectors (COs). Afterward, it became the intellectual arm of the religious peace movement. Its popular journal, The World Tomorrow (renamed Fellowship, 1935), embodied radical Christian‐motivated ideas. Membership averaged 6,000.
During the 1920s and 1930s, FOR helped establish the Committee on Militarism in Education to oppose compulsory ROTC; it supported the Outlawry of War campaign culminating in the Kellogg‐Briand Pact (1928), and cosponsored a peace mission to Nicaragua.
In the late 1930s, FOR cooperated with other peace groups in establishing the Emergency Peace Campaign, calling for strict neutrality, lower tariffs, and international organization contingent on justice. Membership increased to 10,000 during World War II as FOR aided COs, sent supplies to war relief camps in Europe, and sought release of Japanese Americans from relocation camps.
In the early years of the Cold War, membership dropped to an all‐time low of 2,000; but in the 1950s, the Fellowship promoted a nationwide campaign against nuclear weapons testing and gained adherents.
During the Vietnam War, led by David McReynolds, Allen Brick, Ron Young, Ray Gould, and Reverend William Sloane Coffin, FOR reached nearly 23,000 members, participated in numerous antiwar demonstrations, conducted draft‐counseling centers, and established social service schools in South Vietnamese cities. Conflict within the national council erupted when executive secretary Al Hassler urged support for the Buddhist pacifists' “Third Force” solution, while others called for immediate unilateral U.S. troop withdrawal.
After Vietnam, FOR investigated events in Nicaragua between the Sandinistas and contras, and joined the Nuclear Freeze Campaign of the 1980s. Prior to the Persian Gulf War, the Fellowship led a peace mission with medical supplies to refugees in Jordan and Iraq. In the mid‐1990s, it instituted a Civilian Casualty Fund to aid Bosnian Muslims. FOR membership in 1998 was about 8,000—the majority from the Protestant, Catholic, or Jewish faiths.
[See also Conscientious Objection; Japanese‐American Internment Cases; Pacifism.]
Lawrence S. Witter , Rebels Against War: The American Peace Movement, 1933–1983, 2nd ed., 1984.
Charles F. Howlett , John Nevin Sayre and the American Fellowship of Reconciliation, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 114 (July1990), pp. 399–422.
Charles F. Howlett , The American Fellowship of Reconciliation, South of the Mountains, 37 (January–March 1993), pp. 3–14.
Charles F. Howlett
"Fellowship of Reconciliation." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fellowship-reconciliation
"Fellowship of Reconciliation." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved August 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fellowship-reconciliation
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.