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Falaise, treaty of

Falaise, treaty of, 1174. Earliest Anglo-Scottish treaty whose terms are known in full. It was imposed by Henry II on the captive William the Lion at Falaise in Normandy early in December 1174, and finally ratified at York on 10 August 1175. To secure his release from custody, William explicitly recognized Henry as feudal overlord of Scotland; Scottish nobles and churchmen followed suit; and the castles of Edinburgh, Roxburgh, and Berwick were surrendered and garrisoned by English troops. These terms were punitive and humiliating, and although Henry refrained from exercising his authority to the full, the treaty remained in force until 1189.

Keith J. Stringer

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