Skip to main content

Case‐Church Amendment

Case‐Church Amendment (1973).The signing of the Paris Peace Agreement in January 1973 brought a final withdrawal of American military forces from Vietnam following the Vietnam War. Many believed, however, that the peace agreement only marked a temporary respite in the fighting. The question was what would the administration of President Richard M. Nixon do once the inevitable renewal of hostilities between the North and South Vietnamese forces began? In order to prevent a re introduction of United States forces into the conflict, Senators Clifford Case (R‐NJ) and Frank Church (D‐ID) introduced on 26 January 1973 a bill that barred any future use of American forces in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia without the authorization of the Congress. The inclusion of Cambodia was crucial because the Paris agreement did not cover the continued fighting there, and American air power continued to be employed in bombing the Khmer Rouge.

The Senate passed the amendment for the first time on 14 June. While awaiting action in the House of Representatives, Nixon vetoed separate legislation that would have ended the bombing in Cambodia. Finally, a modified Case‐Church amendment was passed by the Senate on 29 June by a 63–26 vote. It allowed the bombing in Cambodia to continue until 15 August. After that date, all use of the American military was prohibited in Southeast Asia unless the president secured Congressional approval in advance. The proponents of the ban did not know that Nixon had, in fact, secretly promised South Vietnam's president Nguyen Van Thieu that the United States would resume bombing in North and South Vietnam if he determined it necessary to enforce the peace settlement. The Case‐Church amendment, therefore, marked the final end to direct American military involvement in Southeast Asia.


LeRoy Ashby and and Rod Gramer , Fighting the Odds: The Life of Senator Frank Church, 1994.

David F. Schmitz

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Case‐Church Amendment." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . 24 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Case‐Church Amendment." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . (February 24, 2019).

"Case‐Church Amendment." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved February 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.