Arnhem, battle of

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Arnhem, battle of, 1944. British and Polish parachute troops attempted to secure bridges at Arnhem over the Rhine in September 1944, while US forces seized crossings further south over rivers and canals at Eindhoven and Nijmegen. Montgomery expected to exploit operation Market-garden by outflanking German defences and surrounding the Ruhr even before using Antwerp for supplies. The Americans succeeded; the British drop met overwhelming counter-attack from SS Panzer divisions resting nearby, organized by Model's Army Group HQ, which actually saw the parachutists descend. Montgomery's decision to attack in spite of warnings from ULTRA intelligence was a gamble in an attempt to finish the European war in 1944.

R. A. C. Parker

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