Arniches, Carlos 1866–1943

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Arniches, Carlos 1866–1943

(Carlos Jorge German Arniches Barrera)

PERSONAL: Surname is pronounced "ar-nee-chez"; born October 11, 1866, in Alicante, Spain; died following a heart attack, April 16, 1943, in Madrid, Spain; son of Carlos Arniches (a paymaster at a tobacco factory) and Maria Antonia Barrera (a homemaker); married Pilar Moltó Campo-Redondo, July 12, 1894; children: Carlos, José, Maria, Fernando, Rosario.

CAREER: Playwright.

MEMBER: Society of Spanish Authors (president, 1922).

AWARDS, HONORS: Named "Alicante's Favorite Son," 1921, and "Madrid's Favorite Adpoted Son," 1931; inductee, Ateneo Iberoamericano, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

WRITINGS:

PLAYS

Casa editorial (title means "Publishing House"; one-act play), music by Rafael Taboada, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1888.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) La verdad desnuda (title means "The Naked Truth"; one-act play), music by Apolinar Brull, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1888.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) Las manias (title means "Manias"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1888.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) Ortografía (title means "Orthography"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1888.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) El fuego de San Telmo (title means "St. Elmo's Fire"; one-act play), music by Apolinar Brull, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1889.

(With Celso Lucio) Panorama nacional (title means "National Panorama"; one-act play), music by Apolinar Brull, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1889.

(With Sinesio Delgado, Celso Lucio, and Fernández Manzano) Sociedad secreta (title means "Secret Society"; one-act play), music by Apolinar Brull, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1889.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) Las guardillas (title means "The Garrets"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1890.

(With Celso Lucio) Calderón (one-act play), music by Manuel Nieto, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1890.

Nuestra señora (title means "Our Lady"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1890.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) La leyenda del monje (title means "The Legend of the Monk"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1890.

(With Manuel Labra) Victoria! (title means "Victory!"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1891.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) Candidatato independiente (title means "Independent Candidate"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1891.

(With Celso Lucio) Los secuestradores (title means "The Kidnappers"; one-act play), music by Manuel Nieto, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1892.

(With Celso Lucio) Los aparecidos (title means "The Ghosts"; one-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1892), music by Manuel Fernández Caballero, Unión Musical Española (Madrid, Spain), reprinted, 1963.

(With Gonzalo Cantó) Las campanadas (title means "The Stroking of the Bell"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1892.

(With Gonzalo Cantó and Celso Lucio) Los Mostenses (title means "The Mostenses"; three-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1892.

(With Gonzalo Cantó and Celso Lucio) Via libre (title means "Open Road"; one-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1893), music by Ruperto Chapí, Unión Musical Española (Madrid, Spain), 1893.

(With José López Silva) Los decamisados (title means "The Ragamuffins"; one-act play), music by Federico Chueca, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1893.

(With Celso Lucio and Joaquín Abati) El brazo derecho (title means "The Right Arm"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1893.

(With Celso Lucio) El reclamo (title means "The Decoy"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1893.

(With Celso Lucio) Los puritanos (title means "The Puritans"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1894.

(With Celso Lucio) El pie izquierdo (title means "The Left Foot"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1894.

(With Celso Lucio) Las amapolas (title means "The Poppies"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1894.

(With Celso Lucio) Tabardillo (one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1895.

(With Celso Lucio) El cabo primero (title means "The First Corporal"; one-act play), music by Fernández Caballero, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1895.

(With Joaquín Abati) El otro mundo (title means "The Other World"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1895.

(With Celso Lucio) El príncipe heredero (title means "The Princely Heir"; two-act play), music by Manuel Nieto, Apolinar Brull, and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1896.

(With José López Silva) El coche correo (title means "The Mail Car"; one-act play), music by Federico Chueca, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1896.

(With Celso Lucio) Las malas lenguas (title means "Evil Tongues"; one-act play), music by Jerónimo Jiménez, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1896.

(With Manuel Labra) El jefe del movimiento (title means "The Leader of the Movement"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1896.

(With Celso Lucio) Los bandidos (title means "The Bandits"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1896.

La banda de trompetas (title means "The Trumpet Band"), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1896.

(With Celso Lucio) Los conejos (title means "The Rabbits"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1897.

(With Celso Lucio and Julio Pardo) Plan de ataque (title means "Plan of Attack"; one-act play), music by Audran and Vidal Llimona, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1897.

(With Celso Lucio and Enrique García Álvarez) Arco iris (title means "Rainbow"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1897.

(With Celso Lucio) Los camarones (title means "Gratuities"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1897.

(With Celso Lucio) La guardia amarilla (title means "The Soldiers in Yellow"; one-act play), music by Jerónimo Jiménez, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1897.

El santo de la Isidra (title means "Isidra's Saint"; one-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1898), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, Unión Musical Española (Madrid, Spain), reprinted (bound with Gigantes y cabezudos, by Miguel Echegary), Biblioteca Nueva (Madrid, Spain), 1998.

La fiesta de San Antón (title means "St. Anthony's Festival"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1898.

El día de San Eugenio (title means "The Day of San Eugenio"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1898.

(With José López Silva) Instantáneas (title means "Snapshots"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1899.

(With Celso Lucio) El último chulo (title means "The Last Scamp"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa and Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1899.

La cara de Dios (title means "God's Countenance"; three-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1899.

(With Celso Lucio) María de los Angeles (one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1900.

(With Celso Lucio) El escalo (title means "The Housebreaking"; one-act play), music by Amadeo Vives, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1900.

Sandías y melones (title means "A Cart of Melons"; one-act play), music by Eladio Montero, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1900.

(With Sinesio Delgado and José López Silva) El siglo XI (title means "The Nineteenth Century"; one-act play), music by Montesinos, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1901.

El tío de Alcalá (title means "The Fellow from Alcalá"; one-act play), music by Montesinos, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1901.

Doloretes (one-act play), music by Amado Vives and Manuel Quislant, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1901.

(With Enrique García Álvarez and Antonio Paso) Los niños llorones (title means "The Whining Children"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1901.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) La muerte de Agripina (title means "Agrippina's Death"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1902.

La divisa (title means "The Emblem"; one-act play), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1902.

Gazpacho andaluz (title means "Andalusian Gazpacho"; one-act play), music by Rafael Calleja and V. Lleó, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1902.

(With José Jackson Veyán) San Juan de Luz (one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1902.

(With Ramón Asensio Mas) El puñao de rosas (title means "A Handful of Roses"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1902.

(With José Jackson Veyán) Los granujas (title means "The Urchins"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1902.

(With Carlos Fernández Shaw) La canción del náufrago (title means "The Castaway's Song"; three-act play), music by Morera, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1903.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El terrible Pérez (title means "Terrible Pérez"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1903.

(With José Jackson Veyán) Colorín, colorao (title means "Bright and Ruddy"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1903.

(With José Jackson Veyán) Los chicos de las escuela (title means "The Schoolboys"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1903.

(With Carlos Fernández Shaw) Los pícaros celos (title means "Vile Suspicions"; one-act play), music by Jerónimo Jiménez, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1904.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El pobre Valbuena (title means "Poor Valbuena"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1904.

(With Sinesio Delgado) El paraíso de los niños (title means "The Children's Paradise"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1904.

Las estrellas (title means "The Stars"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1904.

(With José Jackson Veyán) Los guapos (title means "The Bullies"; one-act play), music by Jerónimo Jiménez, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1905.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El perro chico (title means "The Five-Cent Coin"; one-act play), music by José Serrano and Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1905.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) La reja de la Dolores (title means "Dolores's Window"; one-act play), music by José Serrano and Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1905.

(With Enrique García Álvarez and Antonio Casero) El iluso Cañizares (title means "Deluded Cañizares"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Rafael Calleja, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1905.

(With Carlos Fernández Shaw) El maldito dinero (title means "Accursed Money"; one-act play), music by Ruperto Chapí, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1906.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El pollo Tejada (title means "Shrewd Tejada"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1906.

La pena negra (title means "The Dark Affliction"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1906.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El distinguido "sportsman" (title means "The Distinguished Sportsman"), music by Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1906.

La noche de Reyes (title means "Twelfth Night"; one-act play), music by José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1906.

El pollo tejada: aventura cómico lírica en un acto: dividido en cuatro cuadros, en prosa original, R. Velasco (Madrid, Spain), 1906.

(With Enrique García Álvarez and Ramón Asensio Mas) La edad de hierro (title means "The Iron Age"; one-act play), music by Enrique García Álvarez and Hermoso, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1907.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) La gente seria (title means "The Serious People"; one-act play), music by José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1907.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) La suerte loca (title means "Crazy Luck"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde and José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1907.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) Alma de Dios (title means "The Kindhearted Woman"; one-act play), music by José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1907.

(With José Jackson Veyán) La carne flaca (title means "Weak Flesh"; one-act play), music by V. Lleó, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1908.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El hurón: Felipe Segundo (title means "The Ferret: Philip the Second"), music by Tomás López Torregrosa, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1908.

(With Félix Quintana) La alegría del battalion (title means "The Battalion's Merriment"; one-act play), music by José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1909.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El método Górritz (title means "The Górritz Method"; one-act play), music by V. Lleó, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1909.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) Mi papa (title means "My Dad"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1910), [Madrid, Spain], 1910.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) La primera conquista (title means "The First Conquest"), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1910.

(With José López Silva) El amo de la calle (title means "The Street Boss"; one-act play; music by Enrique García Álvarez and Rafael Calleja, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1910), Sociedad anónima Casa Dotésio (Madrid, Spain), 1910.

(With Enrique García Álvarez, Antonio Pasa, and Joaquín Abati) Genio y figura (title means "Smart and Shapely"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1910.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El trust de los Tenorios (title means "The Trust of the Tenorios"; one-act play), music by José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1910.

(With Joaquín Abati) El Premio Nobel (title means "The Nobel Prize"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1911.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) Gente menuda (title means "Little People"; two-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1911.

(With Ramón Asensio Mas) El género alegre (title means "The Happy Genre"; one-act play), music by Penella and Enrique García Álvarez, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1911.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El príncipe Casto (title means "Prince Cast"; one-act play), music by Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1912.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El fresco de Goya (one-act play), music by Antonio Domínguez and Joaquín Valverde, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1912.

(With Enrique García Álvarez) El cuarteto Pons (title means "The Pons Quartet"; one-act play), music by V. Lleó, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1912.

La pobre niña (title means "The Poor Little Girl"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1912.

La gentuza (title means "The Rabble"; two-act play), music by José Serrano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1912.

La piedra azul (title means "The Blue Stone"; one-act play), music by Rafael Calleja, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1913.

(With Antonio Paso) La corte de Risalia (title means "The Courtship of Risalia"; two-act play), music by P. Luna, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1914.

El amigo Melquíades, o Por la boca muere el pez (title means "Friend Melquíades, or The Fish Gets Hooked by Its Mouth"; one-act play; see also below, music by Joaquín Valverde and José Ser-rano, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1914), published as El amigo Melquíades: La señorita de Trevélez, Espasa Calpe (Madrid, Spain), 1998.

La sombra del Molino (title means "In the Windmill's Shadow"; one-act play), music by Vicente Arregui, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1914.

La sobrina del cura (title means "The Priest's Niece"; two-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1914.

(With José Jackson Veyán) Las aventuras de Max y Mino, o Qué tontos son los sabios! (title means "The Adventures of Max and Mino, or How Foolish Are the Learned!"; three-part play), music by Rafael Calleja, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1914.

El chico de Las Peñuelas, o No hay mal como el de la envidia (title means "The Boy from Las Peñuelas, or There's Nothing Worse Than Envy"; one-act play), music by Rafael Millán, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1915.

La casa de Quirós (title means "The Quirós Manor"; two-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1915.

La estrellas de Olimpia (title means "The Star of Olympia"; one-act play), music by Rafael Calleja, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1915.

(With Joaquín Abati) Café solo (title means "Black Coffee"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1916.

La señorita Trevélez (title means "Miss Trevélez"; three-act play; see also below), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1916.

(With Juan G. Renovales) Serafían el pinturero, o Contra el querer no hay razones (title means "The Conceited and Affected Seraphin, or You Can't Reason about Love"; two-act play), music by Foglietti and Roid, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1916.

La venganza de la Petra, o Donde las dan, las toman (title means "Petra's Revenge, or One Reaps Where He Has Sown"; two-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1917), Vox (Madrid, Spain), 1980.

Que viene mi marido! (title means "My Husband's Coming!"; three-act play; see also below), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1918.

El agua del Manzanares, o Cuando el río suena … (title means "The Waters of the Manzanares, or The Running River Makes All the Noise …"; one-act play), music by Tomás Barrera and Antonio Estremera, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1918.

(With Joaquín Abati) La mujer artificial, o La receta del doctor Miró (title means "The Artificial Woman, or Dr. Miró's Prescription"; three-act play), music by Pablo Luna, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1918.

(With Joaquín Abati) Las lágrimas de la Trini (title means "Trini's Tears"; two-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1919), Pueyo (Madrid, Spain), 1919.

La flor del barrio (title means "The Flower of the Neighborhood"; two-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1919.

(With Joaquín Abati) Las grandes fortunas (title means "Great Fortunes"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1919.

Los caciques (title means "The Bosses"; three-act play; see also below), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1920.

(With Alfredo Trigueros Candel) El conde de Lavapiés, o No hay fuerza contra la astucia (title means "The Count from Lavapiés, or There's No Power against Cunning"; two-act play), music by Rafael Calleja and Antonio Estremera, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1920.

(With Joaquín Abati and Pedro García Marín) La maña de la mañica (title means "The Sister's Cleverness"; one-act play; produced in San Sebastián, Spain, 1920), [Madrid, Spain], 1921.

La chica del gato (title means "The Forlorn Girl"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1921), Imprenta de la Correspondencia militar (Madrid, Spain), 1921.

Mariquita la Pispajo, o No hay bien como la alegría (title means "Frisky Little Mary, or The High Esteem of Merriment"; two-act play), music by Antonio Estremera, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1921.

La heroica villa (title means "The Heroic Town"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1921; see also below), Imprenta de la Correspondencia militar (Madrid, Spain), 1921.

Es mi hombre (title means "That's My Man"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1921.

(With Joaquín Abati) No te ofendas, Beatriz (title means "Don't Take Offense, Beatrice"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1921.

El mirar de sus ojos (title means "The Look in Her Eyes"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1922.

La hora mala (title means "The Fatal Hour"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1922), Imprenta de la Correspondencia militar (Madrid, Spain), 1922.

La tragedia de Marichu (title means "The Tragedy of Marichu"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1922.

La locura de Don Juan (title means "Don Juan's Madness"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1923.

(With Antonio Estremera) La dichosa honradez (title means "Sterling Integrity"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1923.

(With Joaquín Abati) Angela María (title means "Angel Mary"; two-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924.

Los milagros del jornal (title means "Miracles from the Daily Wage"; one-act play; see also below), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924.

(With Antonio Estremera) El camino de todos (title means "The Road for Everyone"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924.

La risa de Juana (title means "Juana's Laughter"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924.

(With Antonio Estremera) Don Quintín el amargao, o El que siembra vientos … (title means "The Embittered Quintín, or He Who Sows the Wind …"; two-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924), Unión Musical Española (Madrid, Spain), 1924.

Rositas de olor (title means "Fragrant Little Roses"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924.

(With Antonio Estremera) Los maestros canteros (title means "The Master Stonecutters"; two-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1924.

(With J. Aguilar Catena) El tío Quico (title means "Uncle Quico"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

(With Antonio Paso and Antonio Estremera) Que hombre tan simpático! (title means "What a Charming Fellow!"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

(With Antonio Estremera) El tropiezo de la Trini, o Bajo una mal capa (title means "Trini's Blunder, or Under an Evil Cloak"; two-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

(With Emilio Sáiz) Adiós, Beatriz (title means "Goodbye, Beatrice"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

La cruz de Pepita (title means "Pepita's Cross"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

(With Antonio Estremera) El señor Pepe el templao o La Mancha de la mora (title means "Serene Master Pepe, or The Blackberry Stain"; two-act play), music by Cayo Vela, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

(With Antonio Paso) Qué encanto de mujer! (title means "What a Charming Woman!"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1925.

(With Antonio Paso and Antonio Estremera) Los cellos me están matando (title means "I Am Dying of Jealousy"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1926.

(With Pedro García Marín) En Aragón hi nacio (title means "I Was Born in Aragon"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1926.

El ultimo mono, o El chico de la tienda (title means "The Last Monkey, or The Lad from the Store"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1926.

Mechachis, qué guapo soy! (title means "Gracious, How Handsome I Am!"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1926.

Me caso mi madre, o Las veleidades de Elena (title means "My Mother Married Me Off, or Elena's Fickle Concerns"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1927.

El señor Adrián el primo, o Qué malo es ser bueno (title means "Mr. Adrian the Dupe, or How Tough It Is to Be Good"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, 1927.

El solar de Mediacapa (title means "Mediacapa's Lineage"; three-act play produced in Madrid, Spain, 1928), La Farsa (Madrid, Spain), 1929.

La piel del lobo (title means "The Wolf's Hide"), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1928.

(With Joaquín Abati) La cárcel Modelo, o La venganza de un malvado (title means "Model Jail, or The Villain's Revenge"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1929), Grafica Literaria (Madrid, Spain), 1929.

(With José de Lucio) Coplas de ronda (title means "Night Patrol Song"; three-act play), music by Francisco Alonso, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1929.

Para ti es el mundo (title means "The World Is All Yours"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1929.

La condesa está triste (title means "The Countess Is Sad"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1930.

(With Joaquín Abati and José de Lucio) Los chamerileros (title means "The Junk Collectors"; three-act play), produced in Barcelona, Spain, 1930.

El señor Badanas (title means "Mister Badanas"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1930.

Vivir de ilusiones (title means "Living on Dreams"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1931.

La diosa ríe (title means "The Goddess Laughs"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1931), Gráfica literaria (Madrid, Spain), 1932.

Las dichosas faldas (title means "The Happy Women"; three-act play), Gráfica literaria (Madrid, Spain), 1933.

Cuidado con el amor! (title means "Look Out for Love!"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1933.

Las doce en pun to (title means "Twelve o'Clock High"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1933.

El casto don José (title means "Chaste Don José"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1933.

(With Antonio Estremera) Peccati mundi (title means "The Sins of the World"), music by Jacinto Guerrero, produced in Madrid, Spain, 1934.

(With Joaquin Abati and José de Lucio) Salud y pesetas (title means "Good Health and Prosperity"), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1934.

(With Antonio Estremera) Paquita, la del Portillo (title means "Portillo's Woman Paquita"; one-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1934.

La tragedia del pelele (title means "The Nincompoop's Tragedy"; three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1935), Rivadeneyra (Madrid, Spain), 1935.

Yo quiero (title means "I Want To"; three-act play), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1935.

(With Antonio Estremera) Bésame, que te conviene (title means "It Suits Your Interests, So Kiss Me"), produced in Madrid, Spain, 1936.

El Padre Pitillo (title means "Father Pitillo"; three-act play), produced in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1937.

El tio Miseria (title means "That Fellow Misery"; three-act play), produced in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1938.

El hombrecillo (title means "The Little Man"; three-act play; produced in Barcelona, Spain, 1941), E. de Miguel (Madrid, Spain), 1942.

Ya conoces a Paquita (title means "You Already Know Paquita"; three-act play), produced in Pamplona, Spain, 1942.

La fiera dormida (title means "The Sleeping Beast"; three-act play), produced in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1943.

Don Verdades (three-act play; produced in Madrid, Spain, 1943), M. Altolaguirre (Mexico City, Mexico), 1945.

Also the author of San Isidro bendito! (one-act play), 1934. The following unpublished plays have also been attributed to the author: La princesa tarambana, Las grandes cortesanas, 1902, El eterno romance, 1908, Señoritos …, a otra cosa, 1934, Los hombres que lloran, 1934, and Espejo de grandes, 1946. The play La verdad desnuda was published by Zozaya (Madrid, Spain); the plays Panorama nacional, La banda de trompetas, El ũltimo chulo, El tío de Alcald, Los chicos de las escuelá, El amigo Melquíades, and o Por la boca muere el pez were published by Unión Musical Española (Madrid, Spain); the plays El reclamo, Los camarones, La cara de Dios, El siglo XIX, Los puritanos, and Los pícaros celos were published by So-ciedad anónima Casa Dotesio (Madrid, Spain); the play El escalo was published by Unión musica (Madrid, Spain).

OTHER

Cartilla y cuaderno de lectura (reading primer), [Spain], 1887.

Del Madrid castizo (title means "From the Soul of Madrid"; contains Los pobres; Los culpables; El premio de Nicanor, o A quién le doy la suerte?; Los neutrales; El zapatero filósofo, o Año nuevo, vida neuva; Los pasionales; La risa del pueblo; La pareja cientifica; Los ateos; Los ricos; and Los ambiciosos), 1917, reprinted, Cátedra (Madrid, Spain), 1978.

Sorrow of the Writer Arniches for the Ruin of Madrid (pamphlet), Spanish Service Information (Valencia, Spain), 1936.

Teatro Completo, M. Aguilar (Madrid, Spain), 1948.

Carlos Arniches: Antología, edited by Juan Emilio Aragones, Doncel (Madrid, Spain), 1966.

La señorita de Trevélez; La heroica villa; Los mila-gros del jornal, Taurus Ediciones (Madrid, Spain), 1967.

El santo de la Isidra; El amigo Melquíades; Los caciques, Alianza Editorial (Madrid, Spain), 1969.

Obras Completas, Turner (Madrid, Spain), 1995.

La señorita de Trevélez; Que viene mi marido!, Catedra (Madrid, Spain), 1995.

La señorita de Trevélez; Los caciques, Editorial Castalia (Madrid, Spain), 1997.

Obras completas, Fundación José Antonio de Castro (Madrid, Spain), 2005.

Author contributed many articles, lectures, letters, and reminiscences to various periodicals.

ADAPTATIONS: Several of Arniches's plays have been adapted for Spanish television and for feature films.

SIDELIGHTS: Spanish dramatist Carlos Arniches was awarded the title "King of the Sainete" before he was thirty-five years old. A prolific writer, Arniches collaborated in the creation of nearly two hundred sainettes (one-act plays), zarzuelas (musical comedies), and grotesque tragedies (full-length dramas). Early in his career, Arniches established himself as a master of the Spanish theatrical form genéro chico (brief theatrical works), which includes the forms of the sainete and zarzuela. Arniches's brief theatrical pieces provided the residents of Madrid with a unique reflection of their own customs and conventions, popularly called costumbrismo. Arniches brings the vibrant colors, sounds, and pageantry of Spanish—and particularly, Madrilenian—folk tradition onto the stage. In his biography Carlos Arniches, Douglas R. McKay commented that in Arniches's early writing: "He perfected the classical Spanish sainete and became its most distinguished architect; late in life he added a new and exciting genre to the tradition of full-length drama: the grotesque tragedy."

Arniches, the fifth child and only son in a family of seven, was born in the Mediterranean coastal town of Alicante in 1866. During his secondary school years, Arniches showed evidence of his later talent by producing short plays with the help of his fellow students. Arniches's father lost his job at a tobacco factory through political manipulation. Because a yellow fever epidemic and several political insurrections occurred around the same time, Arniches's parents moved their family to Barcelona in 1880. Carlos Arniches was deeply affected by his father's dismissal and the subsequent poverty that the family experienced. Later in life, he incorporated his bitter feelings about political injustice and corruption into the play Los caciques, which forcefully attacks the system of political "bosses."

Arniches lived in Barcelona for five years, working as a dry goods clerk, a job that earned him a reasonable salary and helped to support his family. He preferred, however, to write articles for La Vanguardia, a leading newspaper in Barcelona, because it connected him with the literary world of the day. In 1885 Arniches moved to Madrid in the company of a maiden aunt. She supported his financial needs for two years, until she realized that she could not impose her will upon her nephew and convince him to become a lawyer. Arniches's insistence upon a literary career resulted in a rift between them, and he found himself penniless at the age of twenty.

The following two years were financially bleak, but Arniches later credited this time as a character-building period of his life. He worked on the editorial staffs of three small newspapers and, according to McKay, came to value and believe "in the fortifying virtue of work." When it seemed that he had reached his lowest and most desperate point, Arniches published his first book, a reading primer titled Cartilla y cuaderno de lectura. This rhyming alphabet book describes the life of the monarch, Alfonso XII, and was dedicated to the king's son, Alfonso XIII. The ninety-six-page work was almost immediately utilized as a primer throughout the Spanish public school system.

In 1888, scarcely a year after the reading primer appeared, Arniches introduced his first play, Casa editorial, a musical revue written with an older author from Alicante, Gonzalo Cantó. The production continued for 150 performances; when it completed its run, Arniches's days of poverty were ended. After that point, his life became "a document of ascendant success, comfort and prosperity," according to McKay. Casa editorial received so much praise from both critics and the public that Arniches decided to continue his career in the theatrical world. He followed this success with two more musical revues, which were even more popular than the first. The fourth play, Las manias, was similar in style to the preceding three works, but it was poorly received and proved to be a terrible failure. Arniches, however, did not allow that to deter his career. Instead, he directed his energies into writing sainetes, one-act plays that depict, in McKay's words, "the popular customs of the common people."

Arniches's early works were typical of the Spanish sainete form, and he brought no new impulses to the genre. McKay commented that the early characters were usually "involved in single, uncomplicated love conflicts" that tended to be resolved by a happy ending. He also remarked that "the plot line in most of these works is based upon mistaken identities and hilarious misunderstandings." Through his collaborative work with Gonzalo Cantó and Celso Lucio, however, Arniches began to introduce novel elements into the sainete. The first difference was that Arniches's later plays were occasionally marked by "spontaneous, sparkling dialogue" that emerges during the action. The second new element, according to McKay, was "the emphasis on problems of real people … peddlers, washerwomen, barbers, dressmakers, maids—in short, the poor and simple citizens of the city." Arniches sought to embody and preserve the unique qualities of the Spanish folk spirit—particularly with regard to the Madrilenian citizenry—in his later sainetes.

Although Arniches wrote many of his stage plays in collaboration with other writers, there are a few pieces that serve as strong examples of his individual style. One of these is the sainete El santo de la Isidra. The play's action occurs during the annual Festival of San Isidro, a feast honoring Isidore, the patron saint of Madrid. El santo de la Isidra concerns two young men who vie for the hand of a lovely young maiden, Isidra. Her former suitor, a bully and a coward, is challenged and defeated by a shy young man named Venancio. As McKay noted, the plot is not particularly original, but the play's "major importance is found in the magnificent local color attending the fast pace of the action." For example, according to McKay, Amiches was able to "convey a sense of the unrehearsed spirit of living" in the opening scene of the play, wherein flower vendors shout the praises of their wares, young people argue with one another, and a shoemaker hammers on the sole of a shoe.

Six years later, in 1904, Amiches introduced the play Las estrellas, which deals with the themes of illusion and reality. A barber, Prudencio, falsely believes that his teen-aged daughter and son have talents for acting and bullfighting, respectively. He has heard that his friend's wife and daughter are earning their fortunes as members of a well-respected dance company in Paris, and he wishes to secure an equally bright future for his own family. In order to pursue his dreams of fame and fortune for his children, Prudencio sells the barbershop lease for a mere 700 pesetas. His strong-willed wife, Feliciana, realizes that, as much as she loves her children, they have no such talent as her husband imagines, and she tries to show him the truth. However, he will not listen to his wife, and encourages his daughter to make her stage debut, and his son to enter the bullfighting ring. The three leave Feliciana behind and go off to seek their fortunes. After their departure Feliciana manages to recover the barbershop lease with the help of her brother, who is a lawyer. As might be expected, both children are shamed and humiliated by their endeavors, and they return home with their father. At first Feliciana is furious with them for their foolishness, but then she welcomes them tenderly back into their home. It seems as if this will be one of Amiches's typically happy endings, but then Prudencio's friend returns from Paris, having discovered that his wife and daughter have actually been earning their money through prostitution rather than dancing.

McKay suggested that this play begins a "gradual transformation from the genial vignettes of Madrid folk life to plays of an expanded intrigue." He felt that in Las estrellas, Amiches moves into a new realm, one in which "social and moral concerns take precedence over mere 'costumbrismo'". The playwright himself considered Las estrellas to be the sainete that is most representative of his theatrical work.

In 1918 Amiches began to write in the genre that became known as grotesque tragedies. These plays mingle humor and pathos in a way that critic Ramón Pérez de Ayala, as quoted by McKay, called "an exaggeration of comedy." The first in the series of grotesque tragedies is Que viene mi marido! This play combines humor and slapstick with a plot that revolves around a young woman who can only inherit a great fortune if she is a widow. This play exemplifies a pivotal moment in Amiches's relation to the critics of his time. Until then, Amiches had generally received favorable reviews from the literary critics. There were a few detractors, such as José Vega and Nicolás González Ruiz, who, as McKay noted, charged that "Amiches is a typical case of theatrical inertia, cleverly expanding the simple sainete to accommodate the playgoers of a new era." Another critic, José Benjamin, also quoted by McKay, disagreed and stated: "Amiches never designed his plays after prescribed formulas."

After viewing Que viene mi marido!, author and literary critic Ramón Pérez de Ayala published a series of influential articles about Amiches. McKay noted that he praised the play "with unreserved gusto, enjoining the world of higher criticism to give heed to the artistic virtues of one of Spain's most remarkable playwrights." When these reviews appeared, the literary world seemed to consider Amiches more seriously than it had, and as McKay further mentioned, "few disparaging remarks were written about Amiches' theater after 1920."

In 1921, Amiches achieved more honor in the form of an award from his hometown, Alicante. This city bestowed Arniches with the title of "Alicante's Favorite Son." Not to be outdone, the citizens and government of Madrid not only named him "Madrid's Favorite Adopted Son" in 1931, but they also changed the name of a street, Calle Peñon, to Calle Carlos Arniches.

At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Amiches and his wife went into a self-imposed exile, traveling to Buenos Aires, Argentina. The separation from family and friends, although voluntary, was extremely painful for Arniches. In order to forget his sorrow, Arniches devoted himself to writing more plays. The public of Buenos Aires received his work with overwhelming enthusiasm and granted him the highest honorary tribute that a living artist could receive—induction into the Ateneo Iberoamericano. Despite the theatrical successes in Argentina, Arniches and his wife gratefully returned to their homeland in 1940.

Upon his return, Arniches continued to write throughout the remaining three years of his life. He was productive up until the last hours of his life, completing his final play, Don Verdades, late in the afternoon of April 15, 1943. On the following day, Arniches died of a heart attack, which many surmise was brought on by the writer's weakened condition following news of his daughter's premature death only a few months before.

Arniches's funeral was a spectacle of public mourning, only rarely seen in the history of Spain. McKay described the procession, which embodied the "entire city's devotion to the memory of a beloved artist." Alfredo Marquerie, as quoted by McKay, related an often-repeated anecdote about the day. A city policeman noticed the enormous funeral procession crossing the streets of Madrid and asked a member of the procession for the name of the deceased. When the policeman heard that it was Arniches, "he removed his helmet, abandoned his post, and joined the procession with tears in his eyes."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Encyclopedia of World Literature in the Twentieth Century, 3rd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.

Everyman's Dictionary of European Writers, E.P. Dutton (New York, NY), 1968.

McKay, Douglas R., Carlos Arniches, Twayne Publishers (New York, NY), 1972.

PERIODICALS

Cuardernos Hispanoamericanos, Volume 68, 1966, Vicente Ramos, "Consideraciones sobre Carlos Arniches," pp. 117-129.

Hispanic Review, Maria Montserrat Alás-Brun, "Arniches: El escritor alicantino y la critica", pp. 142-144.

Revista de Occidente, April, 1970, Antonio Díaz-Cañabate, "La formula teatral del Arnichismo," pp. 93-99.

ONLINE

Internet Movie Database, http://www.imdb.com/ (April 7, 2006), "Carlos Arniches (I)."

Zarzuela!: Writer Biographies, http://www.zarzuela.net/ (April 7, 2006), "Carlos Arniches."

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Arniches, Carlos 1866–1943

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