Humphrey's Executor v. United States
HUMPHREY'S EXECUTOR V. UNITED STATES,
HUMPHREY'S EXECUTOR V. UNITED STATES, 295 U.S. 602 (1935), restricted the president's power to remove members of the so-called independent agencies. In October 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt removed Federal Trade Commissioner William E. Humphrey, not for neglect of duty or malfeasance, as stipulated in the Federal Trade Commission Act, but because of differences of opinion. Humphrey denied the validity of this action, and, in a suit that continued after Humphrey's death, the Supreme Court held unanimously that Congress intended to create the Federal Trade Commission as an independent body and therefore meant to limit the president's removal power to the causes enumerated in the act, and that such limitations were not unconstitutional. Congress has authority, the Court declared, to require such a body to act independently of executive control and may forbid removal except for cause.
Herring, E. Pendleton. Public Administration and the Public Interest. New York: Russell and Russell, 1967. The original edition was published in 1936.
Leuchtenburg, William E. "The Case of the Contentious Commissioner: Humphrey's Executor v. U.S." In Freedom and Reform: Essays in Honor of Henry Steele Commager. Edited by Harold M. Hyman and Leonard W. Levy. New York: Harper and Row, 1967.
Andrew C.Rieser/a. r.
"Humphrey's Executor v. United States." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/humphreys-executor-v-united-states
"Humphrey's Executor v. United States." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved December 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/humphreys-executor-v-united-states
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.