Delaware, Washington Crossing the
DELAWARE, WASHINGTON CROSSING THE
DELAWARE, WASHINGTON CROSSING THE. Gen. George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River and defeat of the British in New Jersey checked the British advance toward Philadelphia and restored American morale. On Christmas Day 1776, Washington and 2,400 men with artillery crossed the Delaware from Pennsylvania to surprise British forces, chiefly Hessians (soldiers recruited from Germany), in their quarters north of Trenton, New Jersey. They killed the Hessian commander, Col. Johann Rall, and took 946 prisoners and their weapons. The sick and wounded, as well as supplies left by other Hessian troops retreating to Princeton, were captured by Gen. John Cadwalader. On 29 December, Washington, who retired to Pennsylvania after his exploits, recrossed the Delaware and advanced to Trenton, where he was attacked by the British under Gen. Charles Cornwallis, then marched to Princeton hoping to capture British supplies at New Brunswick. After his victory at the Battle of Princeton, Washington prevailed in skirmishes at Springfield, Hackensack, and Elizabethtown. He headquartered at Morristown, and, for the moment, the American cause was saved.
More than sixty years after the campaign that solidified Washington's reputation, a German-born American painter, Emanuel Leutze, produced his famous Washington Crossing the Delaware. However stirring the image, it has been called absurd by many critics. The pose of Washington in the prow of a rowboat is ridiculous; the flag is
an anachronism; and the river covered with ice is the Rhine, not the Delaware. Nonetheless, the painting has become a symbol of Washington's accomplishment and is perhaps the best known of Leutze's works and the most popular conception of the crossing.
Bill, Alfred H. The Campaign of Princeton, 1776–1777. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1948.
Dwyer, William M. The Day Is Ours!: November 1776–January 1777: An Inside View of the Battles of Trenton and Princeton. New York: Viking Press, 1983.
Kammen, Michael. Meadows of Memory: Images of Time and Tradition in American Art and Culture. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992.
Wilbur C.Abbott/a. r.
"Delaware, Washington Crossing the." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/delaware-washington-crossing
"Delaware, Washington Crossing the." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved March 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/delaware-washington-crossing
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.