CODE NOIR, also known as Black Code, is the name commonly applied to the Edict Concerning the Negro Slaves in Louisiana, issued by Louis XV in March 1724, and promulgated in the colony by the colonial governor, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, on 10 September 1724. A number of slaves had been brought to the colony during the administrations of Antoine Crozat and John Law, and a definition of their legal status had become desirable. The Code Noir, consisting of fifty-four articles, fixed the legal status of slaves and imposed certain specific obligations and prohibitions upon their masters. It prescribed in detail regulations concerning holidays, marriage, religious instruction, burial, clothing and subsistence, punishment, and manumission of slaves. It also defined the legal position and proper conduct of freed or free blacks in the colony. Article I of the code, rather curiously, decreed expulsion of Jews from the colony. Article III prohibited the exercise of any religious creed other than Roman Catholicism and Article IV decreed confiscation of slaves placed under the direction or supervision of any person not a Catholic. The essential provisions of the code remained in force in Louisiana until 1803, and many of them were embodied in later American Black Codes. By the late antebellum period "black codes" governed slave life throughout the southern states. Although the codes varied somewhat from state to state, all granted wide powers to slave owners. The black codes ceased functioning only with the abolition of slavery in 1865.
Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Wilson, Theodore B. The Black Codes of the South. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1965.
"Code Noir." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/code-noir
"Code Noir." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved November 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/code-noir
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.