BUSINESS MACHINES. The history of business machines includes a vast array of devices, most invented during or after the early nineteenth century. Many of the basic technologies were invented early in the industrial revolution but not fully implemented until workers could
be compelled to use them. The typewriter, for example, was first patented in 1714 by Henry Mill but rarely used until the twentieth century, when low-wage female workers replaced men in clerical positions. Similarly, one of the first mechanical calculators was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642, and while desk calculators became common in accounting offices by the nineteenth century, their operators lost their status as high-skill workers when women replaced men in the age of electronic keypunch equipment, accounting machines, and computers. In addition to their implications for male-female power struggles, many classes of business machines, such as the cash register (1879) and the dictation machine (1888), are also part of the larger story of the mechanization of white collar jobs. Many office machines were invented as part of an ongoing search for ways to improve business communication. This category includes the telegraph (1841), telephone (1876), pneumatic tube messaging systems (1865), and a succession of document facsimile or copying systems. Today, many of the functions of traditional office technologies have been incorporated into the personal computer, which has become nearly universal in the business environment.
"Business Machines." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/business-machines
"Business Machines." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved January 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/business-machines
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.