Men and women throughout Africa have smoothed clay or mud on their heads as decoration for thousands of years. Clay and mud is used to hold their hair stiffly in place or mounded into helmets that can be painted with colorful designs. Clay is also used on longer hair, which is wound or woven into elaborate styles, or as complete coverings for shorter cuts. The Kuria, Masai, and Turukana peoples of Kenya weave their hair into sculptures supported by wire or sticks and held in place with sheep fat and red clay. The Bumi and Karo peoples of Ethiopia cover their closely cropped hair with clay to create helmet-like headgear that hold macramé bands, which they use to secure peacock or other bird feathers. Clay and mud hairstyles crack or break easily so people sleep with their heads resting on special wooden boxes that keep their hairstyles intact.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Gröning, Karl. Body Decoration: A World Survey of Body Art. New York: Vendome Press, 1998.
"Mud Hairstyling." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mud-hairstyling
"Mud Hairstyling." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. . Retrieved September 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mud-hairstyling
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.