The upper portion of the soil that is used by plants for obtaining water and nutrients, often referred to as the horizon. Higher levels of organic matter in topsoil cause it to be darker and richer than subsoil and give it greater potential for crop production. The loss of topsoil is a critical problem worldwide. The net effect of this widespread topsoil erosion is a reduction in crop production equivalent to removing about 1% of the world's cropland each year. Soil material that can be purchased to add to existing surface soils is also referred to as topsoil. This kind of topsoil may or may not be from the surface of a soil. Often it is a dark-colored soil that is high in organic matter and in some cases may be more organic soil than mineral soil.
"Topsoil." Environmental Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/topsoil
"Topsoil." Environmental Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/topsoil
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.