Reference Works

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REFERENCE WORKS in the field of religion are extensive and of many types. A specific work may cover religion broadly or be limited to a particular religion or area in the study of religion. The titles listed in this article are primary reference works chosen to provide the reader with resources for definitions, background information, and bibliographies of basic works. Technical works such as concordances and lexicons utilized for translation and exegesis of specific religious texts are not included. The titles, with annotations, are arranged under two main sections: "General Religion" and "Specific Religions."

The General Religion section includes works that provide a broad view of religion or a concentration on at least two specific religions. The listed titles are arranged under five genres: "Atlases," "Bibliographies," "Dictionaries," "Encyclopedias," and "Websites."

Atlases present history and geography via a collection of maps and text. The titles found under this heading cover the biblical world as well as history and growth of the world's religions.

Bibliographies are works that provide the basic titles in a field. Hundreds of bibliographies have been published on specific areas of religion. Many are published as part of two primary bibliography series: the ATLA Bibliography Series (Metuchen, N.J.) and Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies (Westport, Conn.). The books listed here offer broader coverage of multiple religions.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are two genres for which the distinctive lines are very often blurred. Typically, a dictionary is one volume long, contains short definitions of terms or proper names, and includes no, or only brief, bibliographies. Encyclopedias are thought of as comprehensive, multivolume sets including lengthy articles with bibliographies and cross-references. There are, however, many works which fit the description of one genre but carry the title of the other; examples are the one-volume Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions (Amherst, N.Y., 2002) and the six-volume encyclopedic work The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York, 1992). For the purposes of this section of the article, irrespective of their titles, one-volume works are found under the heading of Dictionaries and multivolume works under Encyclopedias. Websites represent a fairly new but growing genre. Religious websites may function as bibliographies or guides pointing to other resources on the internet, or they may contain substantive content.

Websites represent a fairly new but growing genre. Religious websites may function as bibliographies or guides pointing to other resources on the internet, or they may contain substantive content. The websites listed are considered to be among the most stable and provide the best starting points for religious studies.

The Specific Religions section lists resources under the headings of five religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. The titles included are primary works in the genres of the earlier section. The inclusion of these five particular religious traditions over others reflects the number of major reference works available rather than number of adherents to a particular group. There are many important religious groups and movements for which unique reference works are scant (e.g., Sikhism, Asian new religions), and information on them may be found more readily in the general resources.

Readers interested in additional resources listing reference works in religion will find numerous guides available. The following titles are basic starting points: Critical Guide to Catholic Reference Books by James Patrick McCabe, 3rd ed. (Englewood, Colo., 1989); the religion section of Guide to Reference Books, edited by Robert Balay, 11th ed. (Chicago, 1996); Judaica Reference Sources: A Selective, Annotated Bibliographic Guide by Charles Cutter, 3rd rev. and expanded ed. (Westport, Conn., 2004); Recent Reference Books in Religion: A Guide for Students, Scholars, Researchers, Buyers, and Readers by William M. Johnston, 2d ed. (Chicago, 1998); and Theological and Religious Reference Materials by G. E. and Lyn Gorman, 3 vols. (Westport, Conn., 19841986).

See Also

Festschriften; Periodical Literature.


General Religion


Aharoni, Yohanan, et al., eds. The Carta Bible Atlas. 4th ed. Jerusalem, 2002. Updates The Macmillan Bible Atlas (New York, 1993). Includes indexes to persons (new in this edition) and place names; key to maps arranged by books of the Bible; and chronological table (2800 bce to 140 ce).

Baly, Denis, and A. D. Tushingham. Atlas of the Biblical World. New York, 1971. The best atlas for the geology and geography of Palestine in the context of the Middle East. Includes both Judaic and Christian perspectives on the biblical world, with some references to the beginnings of Islam. Chronologies span 3000 bce to 700 ce. Excellent maps and color plates.

Fārūqī, Ismaʿīl Rāgī al, ed. Historical Atlas of the Religions of the World. Maps edited by David E. Sopher. New York, 1974. Text divided into religions of the past, ethnic religions, and the world religions of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Each religion is presented in written text accompanied by photographs, maps showing its history and present distribution, diagrams, and chronologies.

Pritchard, James B., ed. The Harper Atlas of the Bible. New York, 1987. Extensive text and illustrations accompany the detailed color relief maps; covers time period of prehistory (150,000 bce) to 135 ce. Editorial board comprised of outstanding biblical scholars.

Smart, Ninian, ed. Atlas of the World's Religions. New York, 1999. Provides geographical as well as historical understanding of the birth, growth, expansion, and interconnections of the world's religious groups. Generous array of color relief maps, photographs, and charts.

Survey of Israel (Tel Aviv), ed. Atlas of Israel: Cartography, Physical and Human Geography. 3d ed. New York, 1985. 40 sheets (maps). The land of Israel considered historically, sociologically, religiously, ethnographically, and economically. For more current information, compare the maps and numbers of this atlas with Atlas Yisraʿel he-hadash (New York, 1995). Although nearly all of the text of this latter work is in Hebrew, it is similar in its arrangement to the 1985 work, so maps and numbers can easily be compared. The 1995 work also includes satellite photos.


Barrow, John Graves. A Bibliography of Bibliographies in Religion. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1955. Comprehensive listing of separately published bibliographies from approximately 1500 to 1955. Arranged chronologically by date published; includes extensive index. Although dated, contains information not found elsewhere.

International Association for the History of Religions. International Bibliography of the History of Religions. 23 vols. Leiden, 19521973. Published annually. Index of scholarly studies of religion in general and the history of specific religions, exclusive of biblical studies and folklore. Articles listed were published in English, several European languages, and, to a small degree, other languages, and arranged by religious group. Continued by the Science of Religion Bulletin, quarterly (19761979), and Science of Religion, semiannual (1980).

Melton, J. Gordon. Religious Information Sources: A Worldwide Guide. New York, 1992. Provides an overview of the field of religion and religions. Eight sections list resources on religion from general and theoretical considerations; religions of the world; issues in comparative religion; Christianity; and esoteric, New Age, and occult religion.

Turner, Harold W. Bibliography of New Religious Movements in Primal Societies. 6 vols. Boston, 19771992. Covers religious movements in primal societies, defined by the author as "those which arise in the interaction of a primal society with another society where there is great disparity of power or sophistication" (p. vii). Each volume covers a different geographic area: volume 1, Black Africa; volume 2, North America; volume 3, Oceania; volume 4, Europe and Asia; volume 5, Latin America; volume 6, the Caribbean.


Brandon, S.G.F., ed. A Dictionary of Comparative Religion. New York, 1970. Short, initialed articles by British scholars include brief bibliographic references. Designed to discuss religions in proportion to their significance in human cultural history. Contains synoptic index of fifteen major religions as well as a general index. Important first reference tool.

Douglas, J.D., ed. New Twentieth-Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Grand Rapids, Mich., 1991. An updated edition of the Twentieth-Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1955). The 2,100 historical, biographical, geographical, and topical entries attempt to "present a retrospective view of one period in church and world history" (p. v). Related to the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (see under Encyclopedias).

Ferguson, John. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mysticism and the Mystery Religions. London, 1976. Brief articles on names, movements, and terminology of mysticism in its various forms. Extensive bibliography.

Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Edited by Stephan Schuhmacher and Gert Woerner. Boston, 1988. Introduction for the general reader to the terminology and doctrinal systems of Buddhism, Hinduism, Daoism, and Zen. Some illustrations.

Grim, Keith, ed. Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions. Nashville, Tenn., 1981. Guide to the historical development, beliefs, and peculiarities of the variety of religions in the world today. Comprehensive, signed articles on the major religions; some include brief bibliographies. Well illustrated.

Hinnells, John R., ed. A New Dictionary of Religions. Oxford, and Cambridge, Mass., 1995. Brief entries on terms related to living religions; also includes information on ancient religions, astrology, magic, the occult, new religious movements, and secular alternatives to religion. Includes extensive bibliography.

Lewis, James R. The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions. 2d ed. Amherst, N.Y., 2002. Brief entries on approximately 1,000 non-mainstream religious groups. Bibliographies included in some articles, as well as extensive general bibliography. Includes photographs of leaders of many of the groups.

MacGregor, Geddes. Dictionary of Religion and Philosophy. New York, 1989. Brief entries of basic terms, movements, and persons related primarily to the Judeo-Christian traditions. Bibliography.

Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America. Rev. ed. New York, 1992. Begins with essay exploring the term cult. Entries on individual groups include basic information on the history, beliefs, practices, organization, controversies, membership, and primary and secondary bibliographic sources.

Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of American Religions. 7th ed. Farmington Hills, Mich., 2003. Introductory and historical essays trace the growth and development of religion in the United States and Canada, followed by 2,630 descriptive entries on religious bodies located primarily in North America. Includes bibliographies.

Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey. Dictionary of Non-Christian Religions. Philadelphia, 1973. Short entries, many with black and white photos and line drawings. Strongest on Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam; Christianity and the Bible not treated. Basic general bibliography.

Rice, Edward. Eastern Definitions : A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient. Garden City, N.Y., 1978. Dictionary of terminology of major and minor Eastern religions. Some illustrations; no bibliographies.

Smith, Jonathan Z., ed. The HarperCollins Dictionary of Religion. San Francisco, 1995. Published in conjunction with the American Academy of Religion. Longer articles on major religious groups by area editors. Numerous illustrations.


Betz, Hans Dieter, ed. Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart : Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft. 4th ed. Tübingen, Germany, 1998. Six volumes (AQ) as of 2004 (eight volumes projected). A major authoritative resource for the history of the study of religions in the West. Lengthy signed articles written from a liberal Protestant viewpoint. Includes maps, some in color. The earlier three editions remain useful as they reflect the changes in theological climate over time.

Cancik, Hubert, and Helmut Schneider, eds. Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World. Leiden, 2002. Three volumes (ACyp) as of 2004 (twenty volumes, with index, projected). Translation of Der neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike (Stuttgart, Germany, 19962003; 15 vols. plus index), an updated and expanded version of Paulys Real-Encyclopaedie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft (18941980; 24 vols. plus supplements). Basic resource for Greco-Roman religion.

Doniger, Wendy, ed. Mythologies. 2 vols. Chicago, 1991. Translated and restructured edition of Dictionnaire des Mythologies et des Religions des Sociétés Traditionnelles et du Monde Antique (Paris, 1981). Organized by geographic or cultural area. Signed articles, many with bibliographies. Numerous black and white photographs.

Freedman, David Noel, ed. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York, 1992. Nearly 1,000 contributors prepared the 6,200 signed entries, many with bibliographies. Attempts to treat all biblical subjects and topics. Scriptural references based on the Revised Standard Version. Also available on CD-ROM.

Hauck, Albert, ed. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 13 vols. New York, 19081912. Signed articles, usually brief. Based on Herzog and Hauck's Realencyklopädie für Protestantische Theologie und Kirche (Leipzig, Germany, 18961913); major revision and expansion to introduce later and non-Germanic materials. Most useful for entries on persons, ancient religions, and extensive bibliographies. Comprehensive index. Available on the internet at Supplemented by the Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1955; 2 vols.) and New Twentieth-Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1991).

Hillerbrand, Hans J., ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation. 4 vols. New York, 1996. Covers the religious life and "related societal phenomena" of sixteenth-century Europe. Four hundred and fifty scholars contributed 1,200 signed articles, many with bibliographies. Numerous biographical entries. Includes maps and synoptic outline.

Melton, J. Gordon, and Martin Baumann, eds. Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. 4 vols. Santa Barbara, Calif., 2002. Includes approximately 200 essays on the major religious traditions and the religious history and environment in each country of the world, plus 2,000 shorter articles on religious groups and communities throughout the world. Arranged alphabetically by topic and includes a comprehensive index.

Van Huyssteen, J. Wentzel Vrede, ed. Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. 2 vols. New York, 2003. Contains more than 400 signed entries with bibliographies on topics that highlight the intersections and interrelationships between science and religion. Includes synoptic outline and annotated bibliography of significant resources.

Vigouroux, Fulcran. Dictionnaire de la Bible. 5 vols. Paris, 18991928. Supplement, 1928. Thirteen volumes as of 2004. Lengthy signed articles by French biblical scholars writing from a Roman Catholic perspective. The supplement has extensive, signed articles on the religion of the Bible and the ancient world. Includes bibliographies.

Young, Serinity, ed. Encyclopedia of Women and World Religion. 2 vols. New York, 1999. A helpful reference work for first orientation and rich bibliographic sources on the fast-growing field of women's and feminist studies in religion. At present no comparable reference work on gender studies or men's studies in religion has been produced.


Cowan, Douglas E., ed. "Religious Movements Home Page." Available from Begun in 1996 as a project by a religious studies professor at the University of Virginia, now developed by an editor-in-chief and monitored by an advisory board. Contains profiles of religious movement groups, cult group controversies, course materials, and links to religious freedom and religious broadcasting sites. "Each profile offers basic demographic and background information, a summary of beliefs, discussion of controversial issues (when appropriate), links to important websites about each group, and select print bibliographies" (homepage).

Gresham, John L. "Finding God in Cyberspace: A Guide to Religious Studies Resources on the Internet." Available from Begun in 1994 and continually updated, this was one of the first guides to religious resources on the internet. Categorizes religion sites on the internet by type (print, people, digital, and teaching resources) and content (academic disciplines, religious traditions, and religion and cyberspace).

"Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance." Available from Organized in 1995. Includes essays, historical information, belief statements, definitions, statistics, news feeds, and reading lists on various belief groups, particularly those that have been targeted for discrimination.

Thursby, Gene L. "Religion Religions Religious Studies: Information and Links for Study and Interpretation of Religions." Available from Resources arranged under major headings: Religious Traditions (historical as well as alternative/new religions); ReligionModernityBeyond (Freedom of Religion, Freedom from Religion, etc.); Religious Experience (Cultural Diversity, Mysticism, Psychology, Transpersonal); Religious Studies Programs; Research and Teaching Resources. Includes news sources and additional reference sources.

"Virtual Religion Index." Available from Developed and maintained by the Religion Department of Rutgers University. Organized by general topics, including the major religious traditions and general topics such as "Academic Sites," "Anthropology and Sociology," "Ethics and Moral Values," and "Philosophy and Theology."

Specific Religions


Buddha Dharma Education Association. "BuddhaNet: Buddhist Information and Education Network." Available from Created and maintained by the Buddha Dharma Education Association of Sydney, Australia. Contains listings of study guides, e-books, image files, meditations, and activities for children; historical and biographical information; a worldwide directory of Buddhist sites and masters; and links to other web resources.

Buswell, Robert E., Jr., ed. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 2 vols. New York, 2004. Aims to serve as the definitive reference work on Buddhism and Buddhist perspectives on religious issues. More than 250 international scholars contributed signed articles, which include short bibliographies. Numerous illustrations, some in color.

Chitkara, M.G., ed. Encyclopaedia of Buddhism. New Delhi, India, 1961. Six volumes (AMinayett) as of 2004 (ten volumes projected). Massive work on all aspects of Buddhism: names, literature, history, and religious and moral aspects and concepts. Most articles signed; some include bibliographies.

Ciolek, T. Matthew, et al. "Buddhist Studies WWW Virtual Library: The Internet Guide to Buddhism and Buddhist Studies." Available from Edited by Dr. T. Matthew Ciolek, Australian National University, Canberra, and others. Clear table of contents directs users to numerous internet resources, including websites, electronic texts, maps, and bibliographies.

Keown, Damien. A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford, 2003. Succinct entries on concepts, practices, persons, places, schools, and texts. Appendices include maps, a pronunciation guide, a guide to Buddhist scriptures, and a chronology.

Prebish, Charles S. Historical Dictionary of Buddhism. Metuchen, N.J., 1993. Introductory materials include an essay on history and doctrine, introduction to Buddhist scriptures, and a chronology of Buddhist history. Entries provide short definitions of biographical, geographical, and topical subjects. Offers a 98-page bibliography. Also published as The A to Z of Buddhism (2001), which does not include the bibliography.


Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3d ed. New York, 1997. The 6,000 entries (most with bibliographies) cover history, doctrines, persons, and ecclesiastical terms. The latest edition reflects the many changes in the Christian church due to Vatican Council II, feminist theology, liberation theology, and the globalization of Christianity.

Di Berardino, Angelo, ed. Encyclopedia of the Early Church. 2 vols. New York, 1992. Translated from the Italian Dizionario Patristico e di Antichità Cristiane (Rome, 1990). Covers archaeological, philosophical, linguistic, theological, historical and geographical topics related to Christianity of the first to the eighth centuries. Nearly half of volume 2 is composed of a synoptic table, maps, photographs, and line drawings. A French translation, Dictionnaire Encyclopédique du Christianisme Ancien (Paris, 1990), is also available.

"Ecole Initiative." Available from Rich content related to church history: translations of Judeo-Christian and Islamic primary sources to 1500; short essays on significant persons and topics, from Peter Abelard to Zosimus; longer essays on major topics and figures; images of iconography and religious art; and a timeline with geographic cross-index (limited entries). Sections are hyperlinked to each other. Also contains a bibliography of sources used in the articles on the page, a list of contributors with short listings of credentials and links to their contributions to the site, and a list of web pages related to church history.

Ente Per L'Enciclopedia Cattolica. Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano, 19481954. Major pre-Vatican Council II encyclopedia treating the life, thought, history, and general relationship of the Catholic Church to other religions and systems of thought. Numerous biographical entries and illustrations.

Fahlbusch, Erwin, et al., eds. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Mich., 1999. Three volumes (AO) as of 2004 (five volumes projected). Updated and augmented translation of the third edition of Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon (Göttingen, Germany, 19861997), a standard German Protestant work on the teaching of the Christian churches. Endeavors to reflect global, ecumenical, sociocultural, and historical contexts of Christianity at the opening of the twenty-first century. Includes demographic and religious statistics for the six major geographic areas as well as individual countries. Signed articles include bibliographies. No illustrations.

Ferguson, Everett, ed. Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. 2d ed. 2 vols. New York, 1997. Over 1,200 signed articles include bibliographies and cover persons, places, doctrines, and movements of the early churchfrom the life of Christ to the seventh century. Includes photographs, line drawings, maps, and chronologies.

Ganzer, Klaus, and Bruno Steimer, eds. Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche. 3d ed. 11 vols. Freiburg, Germany, 19932001. The standard German encyclopedia, written from a Roman Catholic viewpoint; covers a variety of religions, faiths, and practices. Authoritative signed articles, with extensive bibliographies.

Hillerbrand, Hans J., ed. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. 4 vols. New York, 2004. Provides latest scholarship on the historical and theological dimensions of Protestantism. Articles on persons, movements and events, creeds, denominations, theological and social issues are signed and include brief bibliographies. Also includes an appendix of statistical tables.

"Internet Christian Library." Available from Provides links to Christian mission organizations and resources; general Christian resources, including Christian internet tools, mail-based services, Christian college sites, alphabetical and subject listings of Christian websites, electronic newsletters and journals, electronic bulletin boards, and usenet groups; online Christian texts; and directories of Christian organizations.

Jedin, Hubert, ed. Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte. 3d ed. Freiburg [im Breisgau] and New York, 1987. The best atlas for church history. Outstanding worldwide coverage in numerous clear maps and charts; seventy pages of textual commentary includes bibliographies. A French edition, Atlas d'histoire de l'eglise: les eglises chrétiennes hier et aujourd'hui (Paris, 1990), and Italian edition, Atlante Universale di Storia della Chiesa: le Chiese Cristiane Ieri e Oggi: 257 Carte e Schemi a Colori (Rome, 1991), are also available.

Klauser, Theodor, ed. Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum. Stuttgart, Germany, 1950. Twenty volumes (AK) as of 2004 (forty volumes projected). Lengthy authoritative articles by leading scholars on all aspects of antiquity and Christianity; extensive bibliographies.

Krause, Gerhard, and Gerhard Müller, eds. Theologische Realenzyklopädie [TRE]. 36 vols. plus Abkürzungsverzeichnis (glossary and abbreviations of periodicals indexed) and index. Berlin, 19762003. Major reference work interpreting theology broadly. Signed articles, often monographic in length; extensive international bibliographies. Includes maps (some fold-out) and illustrations.

Marthaler, Berard, ed. New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2d ed. 15 vols. Farmington Hills, Mich., and Washington, D.C., 2003. Includes short, signed articles with bibliographies and numerous photographs, maps, and tables. Treats not only traditional Catholic topics, but also movements, institutions, religions, philosophies, and scientific trends that impinge on Catholic thought and life. Numerous biographical entries (excludes living persons, except for Pope John Paul II). Electronic version available through the netLibrary collection.

Piepkorn, Arthur Carl. Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada. 4 vols. New York, 19771979. Extensive articles on the history, polity, and thought of the major Christian bodies. Massive documentation; lengthy bibliographies. Covers Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox (vol. 1); Protestant Denominations (vol. 2); Holiness and Pentecostal (vol. 3); and Evangelical, Fundamentalist, and Other Christian Bodies (vol. 4).

Van Der Meer, F., and Christine Mohrmann. Atlas of the Early Christian World. London, 1958. Covers the early church from circa 30 bc to 700 ad in pictures, text, and color maps.


Global Hindu Electronic Network. "Hindu Universe." Available from Developed by Global Hindu Electronic Networks(GHEN), a project of the Hindu Students Council, Boston, Massachusetts. Includes lists of Hindu resources, electronic texts, tourism information (India), glossary, and links to some commercial sites for products related to Hinduism.

Himalayan Academy, Hawaii "Hindu Resources Online." Available from Public service portal site.

Klostermaier, Klaus K. A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oxford, 1998. Designed to provide balanced information on the "people and places, scriptures and philosophical systems, art and architecture, mythology and history" (p. vii). Appendices on the philosophical schools, Hindu scriptures, principal schools of Vedānta, and the eightfold practice of Yoga.

Sullivan, Bruce M. Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Lanham, Md., 1997. Short entries that cover the significant terms, doctrines, events, persons, places, and texts related to the various aspects of Hinduism. The introductory pages include a chronology of the history of Hinduism and a survey essay on its history, doctrines, and community life. Includes an extensive bibliography, mostly of English works. Electronic version available through the netLibrary collection. Also issued as The A to Z of Hinduism (2001), which does not include the bibliography.

Smart, Ninian, ed. Hindu World. 2 vols. New York, 1968. Dictionary of Hinduism; content drawn from secondary sources. Includes bibliographies.


Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. "" Available from Maintained by the Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, an internet-based group with members from throughout the world. Includes electronic books, texts, and multimedia resources, with particular emphasis on the Twelver Shīʿah Islamic school of thought. Arabic and Kiswahili interfaces are available to link to resources on the site specific to those languages.

Al Fārūqī, Ismaʿil R., and Lois Lamyāʿ al Fārūqī. The Cultural Atlas of Islam. New York, 1986. Describes Islamic culture and civilization in text, maps, photographs, chronologies, tables, and line art.

Esposito, John L., ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. 4 vols. New York, 1995. Includes 750 signed articles, written by over 450 authors, arranged by category: Islamic thought and practice, Islam and politics, Muslim communities and societies, Islam and society, Islamic studies. Each article includes a bibliography. Synoptic outline of contents in last volume.

Gibb, H. A. R., et al., eds. The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New ed. 11 vols. plus supplement. Leiden, Netherlands, 19602003. Signed articles by authorities on every aspect of Islam: history, religion, science, geography, and so on. Excellent bibliographies; comprehensive cross-referencing. Separate volumes for glossary, proper names, subjects, and indexes. Also available on CD-ROM.

Godlas, Alan. "Islam, Islamic Studies, Arabic, and Religion." Available from Created and maintained by Professor Alan Godlas, Department of Religion, University of Georgia, and administered by the University of Georgia Virtual Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of the Islamic World. Contains "information for the study of Islam, religion, Qurʾān, hadith, the Sunnah, Shiʿism, Sufism, Islam in the modern world, Muslim women, Islamic art, architecture, music, history, and Arabic."

Joseph, Suad, ed. Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures. Leiden, 2004. One volume (on "Methodologies, Paradigms, and Sources") as of 2004 (five volumes projected). Described by the publisher as "an essential reference work for students and researchers in the fields of gender studies and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, as well as scholars of religion, history, politics, anthropology, geography, and related disciplines." Each volume covers specific topics: "Methodologies," "Paradigms and Sources," "Family, Law, and Politics," "Family, Body, Sexuality, and Health," "Economics, Education, Mobility, and Space," and "Practices, Interpretations, and Representations."

Kennedy, Hugh. Historical Atlas of Islam. Leiden, Netherlands, 2002. Parallel text in English and French, map legends in English. Includes eighty-five color relief maps which document pre-Islamic Arabia through the mid-twentieth-century presence of Islam throughout the world. CD-ROM version contains pdf files of maps from the printed edition.

Martin, Richard C., ed. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. 2 vols. New York, 2004. Articles of varying length written by 500 scholars, arranged alphabetically by topic; thematic outline included in front matter. Includes approximately 170 photographs, drawings, maps, and charts, with glossary of commonly used terms. Written for the general reader.

McAuliffe, Jane Dammen, ed. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan. Leiden, Netherlands, 2001. Three volumes (AO) as of 2004 (five volumes projected). Projected to have nearly 1,000 signed articles with bibliographies. Attempts to treat important figures, concepts, places, values, actions, and events within or related to the Qurʾān. Includes black and white illustrations.


Barnavi, Eli, ed. A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People. New York, 1992. Historical essays, arranged chronologically beginning with the twentieth to sixteenth centuries bce, which put the history of the Jewish people in "spatial context" (preface). Contents page is at the back of the book, preceded by index and glossary. Color maps and photographs.

Hebrew College Online. "Shamash, The Jewish Network." Available from Project of Hebrew College (Newton Centre, Mass.) Online. Highly rated network of Jewish information and services; hosts the portal "Judaism and Jewish Resources," created and maintained by Andrew Tannenbaum.

Neusner, Jacob, Alan J. Avery-Peck, and William Scott Green, eds. The Encyclopedia of Judaism. 3 vols. Supplement, 2002. New York, 1999. Published in collaboration with the Museum of Jewish Heritage, New York. Comparative approach to Judaism. Most articles are signed and include bibliographies and notes. Includes maps, numerous sections of photographs, and other illustrations. Volume 3 includes a general index and an index of textual references. Also issued as Encyclopaedia of Judaism (Leiden, 2000). Supplements includes additional articles on related topics on Judaism.

"Princeton University Library Jewish Studies Resources." Available from Provides links to databases (e.g., Rambi ), libraries/archives/research centers, websites, Israel sites, news sources, and listservs.

Roth, Cecil. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 16 vols. Jerusalem, 1974. Comprehensive, standard reference work for the area of Jewish studies. Updated by yearbooks through events of 1992. Entries are initialed and include bibliographies. Includes 8,000 photographs, plus maps, charts, diagrams. CD-ROM version (Shaker Heights, Ohio, 1997) includes updated articles, text of the yearbooks, audio and video recordings, and special collections of images and photographs.

Werblowsky, R. J. Zwi, and Geoffrey Wigoder, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York, 1997. An updated and expanded work based on the Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion (New York, 1966), also edited by Werblowsky and Wigoder. The short, scholarly entries cover the history, persons, practices, and beliefs related to the Jewish religion; most are signed and include brief bibliographies. Serves as a companion to The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford, 1997).

Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed. The New Encyclopedia of Judaism. New York, 2002. Revised and expanded edition of Wigoder's The Encyclopedia of Judaism (New York, 1989). Concise, scholarly articles (unsigned) on aspects of Jewish religious life and development, with special attention given in this edition to liturgical aspects of Judaism and the place of women. Includes an annotated bibliography of basic works on Judaism; numerous illustrations, some in color; and index. Aimed at the general reader.

Edgar Krentz (1987)

Martha S. Alt (2005)

Roberta A. Schaafsma (2005)