The term thinking machine (or intelligent machine) refers to a computer or a robot that has human intelligence. No such machine exists as of 2002, and whether it can be built in principle and how many years of research this would take is a matter of much dispute. The feasibility of thinking machines has been promoted by representatives of strong artificial intelligence (AI), such as John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, and Doug Lenat. A principle formal argument against conscious and thus intelligent machines has been posed by mathematician and physicist Roger Penrose. To testify that a computer agent is a thinking machine it would have to pass the Turing Test.
See also Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Turing Test
"Thinking Machines." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/thinking-machines
"Thinking Machines." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. . Retrieved August 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/thinking-machines