Carcinogen Assessment Groups
CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT GROUPS
Of the perhaps 70,000 chemicals in commerce, only a few dozen are known to cause cancer in humans. Many others are strongly suspected, but unproven, of being capable of causing human cancer. Public concern about cancer has led national and international scientific groups to be chartered to evaluate the cancer-causing potential of chemical and physical agents. These groups include the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization, and the U.S. National Toxicology Program, which is administered by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Although differing in details, these scientific bodies use what is known as a "weight of evidence" approach to identify those agents that have the specific capability of causing cancer. In this approach, scientific groups review the evidence and then assign each chemical or physical agent to a category that roughly corresponds to possible, probable, or known human carcinogens, or negative or no evidence of human cancer-causing capabilities. Certain carcinogen assessment groups, such as that of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, go beyond the hazard identification step to also evaluate the potency of the chemical in causing cancer. This permits a numerical prediction of the risk of cancer from a specific level of exposure.
Bernard D. Goldstein
International Agency for Research on Cancer (2000). Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Geneva: Author.
National Toxicology Program (2000). Report on Carcinogens, 9th edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: Author.
"Carcinogen Assessment Groups." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/carcinogen-assessment-groups
"Carcinogen Assessment Groups." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Retrieved October 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/carcinogen-assessment-groups
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.