Shchusev, Aleksei Viktorovich

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Shchusev, Aleksei Viktorovich (1873–1949). Russian architect, trained in St Petersburg and Paris, he established his practice in St Petersburg, specializing in ecclesiastical work (e.g. restoration of St Basil's Cathedral, Ovruch, Kiev (1903–11), and the new Intercession Church of the Martha and Mary Mission, Moscow (1908–12) ). He designed the Russian Pavilion at the International Exposition, Venice (1913–14), and the Kazan' Railway Station, Moscow (1910–40), in both of which he employed vernacular themes and plentiful embellishments derived from C17 Baroque styles. After the Revolution he settled in Moscow, where he had a successful academic career. In 1924–30 he designed his best-known work, the powerful stripped Neo-Classical mausoleum of Lenin, reminiscent of stark Ancient Egyptian architecture, with its unadorned columnar and trabeated architecture set on blocky podia, the whole forming a stepped pyramidal composition.

Shchusev was an important promoter of the official architectural style of the Stalin era, and his architectural style set precedents for many buildings throughout the Soviet Union.

Bibliography

Kopp (1978);
Placzek (ed.) (1982);
Sokolov (1952);
Sorokin (1987);
Jane Turner (1996);
van Vynckt (ed.) (1993)