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pin-frame

pin-frame(point frame) A device for obtaining a quantitative estimate of vegetation cover. Pin-frames are typically made from lightweight wood, aluminium, or plastic and comprise a cross-bar with pin-holes supported on legs of adjustable height. The pin-frame is set up so that the cross-bar sits above the vegetation to be sampled. Pins are lowered through the pin-holes and the plants hit by the pin-tips are recorded. Where the vegetation is of variable height, records of top-cover (the first plant encountered by the pin) and bottom-cover may be taken. The pin diameter used will affect the results and must be standardized for comparative work.

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"pin-frame." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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pin-frame

pin-frame A device for obtaining a quantitative estimate of vegetation cover. Pin-frames are typically made from light-weight wood, aluminium, or plastic and comprise a cross-bar with pin-holes supported on legs of adjustable height. The pin-frame is set up so that the cross-bar sits above the vegetation to be sampled. Pins are lowered through the pin-holes and the plants hit by the pin-tips are recorded. Where the vegetation is of variable height, records of top cover (the first plant encountered by the pin) and bottom cover may be taken. The diameter of the pin used will affect the results and must be standardized for comparative work.

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Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
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"pin-frame." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"pin-frame." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/pin-frame-0

"pin-frame." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved February 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/pin-frame-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.