Skip to main content

Numerical Cosmology

NUMERICAL COSMOLOGY

Structures in the universe such as stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies are thought to arise from the collapse of initially diffuse matter via gravity. Regions in space, which were slightly more dense in the early universe than the average density, started to contract as early as 100 million years after the Big Bangthe beginning of the universe. Small objects formed first and merged into larger and larger galaxies. Cosmologists have been using supercomputers to follow this origin of cosmic structure in sophisticated, three-dimensional modeling. These models follow how gas and the mysterious dark matter, which is thought to constitute 90 percent of all the mass in the universe, clump into galaxies. The model universes are remarkably successful in matching observations, and they give novel insights into the sequence of events that occurred before the universe attained its present complexity.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Numerical Cosmology." Computer Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Numerical Cosmology." Computer Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/numerical-cosmology

"Numerical Cosmology." Computer Sciences. . Retrieved November 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/numerical-cosmology

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.