Skip to main content

After the Transistor


Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of the transistor. After inventing the transistor, Brattain and Bardeen continued in basic research, Bardeen concentrating on the area of superconductivity, which is the complete absence of resistance to electric current in some materials at low temperatures. In 1972 he was awarded a second Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in superconductivity, the first person ever to receive two Nobel Physics prizes. Shockley left Bell and founded Shockley Semiconductor near Palo Alto, California, the first semiconductor firm in the area that eventually became known as Silicon Valley.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"After the Transistor." Computer Sciences. . 22 Jan. 2019 <>.

"After the Transistor." Computer Sciences. . (January 22, 2019).

"After the Transistor." Computer Sciences. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.