geographic(al) information system
A GIS typically consists of a special database management system (normally relational or object-oriented) that recognizes locational relationships, with closely integrated graphical input and output facilities, together with user facilities for manipulation and analysis of the objects and features in the database. The locational characteristics of objects and features may be recorded in vector form, i.e. in the form of coordinates in the real world (latitude and longitude, or some other grid system); alternatively the geographical region covered may be represented in raster form, i.e. as a regular (quasi-rectangular) pattern of cells in which objects are stored. Some systems provide integration of both forms of representation.
The objects in a GIS may represent points such as an individual mountain peak, lines such as a road or river, polygons such as a forest or the boundary of an administrative area, or continua such as elevation or climate. (Continua are commonly represented in a raster rather than a vector GIS.) The spatial data for a GIS may come from a variety of surveying techniques, including remote sensing imagery and global positioning systems, or from a postal address by geocoding (using existing data about the area covered by each zip code or postcode).
The database language includes facilities for locational queries (such as “how many hospitals are there in Hampshire?”) and locational responses (such as “where are the vineyards in California”), as well as statistical analyses.
"geographic(al) information system." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/geographical-information-system
"geographic(al) information system." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved April 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/geographical-information-system
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.