Marty, Martin E. 1928–
Marty, Martin E. 1928–
(Martin Emil Marty)
PERSONAL: Born February 5, 1928, in West Point, NE; son of Emil A. (a teacher) and Anne Louise (Wuerdemann) Marty; married Elsa Louise Schumacher, June 21, 1952 (deceased); married Harriet Julia Meyer (a musician), August 23, 1982; children: (first marriage) Joel, John, Peter, Micah. Education: Attended Concordia University and Washington University; Concordia Seminary, A.B., 1949, M.Div., 1952; Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, S.T.M., 1954; University of Chicago, Ph.D., 1956. Politics: Democrat. Religion: Lutheran.
ADDRESSES: Home—239 Scottswood Rd., Riverside, IL 60546.
CAREER: Writer. Ordained Lutheran minister, 1952; minister at Christ Lutheran Church, Washington, DC, Pilgrim Lutheran Church, Bethesda, MD, Grace Lutheran Church, River Forest, IL, and Lutheran Church of the Holy Spirit, Elk Grove Village, IL, 1950–63; University of Chicago, Divinity School, Chicago, IL, began as associate professor, became professor of religious history, 1963–78, Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Service Professor, 1978–98, Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus, 1998–, associate dean of divinity school, 1970–75, former director of the Public Religion Project. Encyclopaedia Britannica, consultant on religious history; Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics, founding president and George B. Caldwell senior scholar-in-residence.
MEMBER: American Society of Church History (president, 1971), American Catholic Historical Association (president, 1981), American Academy of Religion (president, 1987).
AWARDS, HONORS: Brotherhood Award, 1960, for The New Shape of American Religion; National Book Award for philosophy and religion, 1972, for Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America; Christopher Award, 1985, for Pilgrims in Their Own Land: Five Hundred Years of Religion in America; National Medal of Humanities, 1997; Alumni Medal, University of Chicago, 1998; Distinguished Service Medal, Association of Theological Schools, 1998; numerous honorary degrees; American Academy of Arts and Sciences fellow; Mohandes K. Ghandi fellow, American Academy of Political and Social Sciences; American Philosophical Society, elected member. Namesake of the Martin Marty Center for Public Religion, University of Chicago, and the Martin Marty Award for the Public Understanding of Religion, American Academy of Religion.
A Short History of Christianity, Meridian (New York, NY), 1959, 2nd revised edition, Fortress Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1987.
The New Shape of American Religion, Harper (New York, NY), 1959, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1978.
The Improper Opinion, Westminster (Philadelphia, PA), 1961.
The Infidel: Freethought and American Religion, Meridian-World (Cleveland, OH), 1961.
Baptism, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1962, reprinted, 1977.
The Hidden Discipline, Concordia (St. Louis, MO), 1963.
Second Chance for American Protestants, Harper (New York, NY), 1963.
Babylon by Choice, Friendship Press (New York, NY), 1964.
Church Unity and Church Mission, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1964.
Varieties of Unbelief, Holt (New York, NY), 1964.
Youth Considers "Do-It-Yourself" Religion, Nelson (New York, NY), 1965.
The Search for a Usable Future, Harper (New York, NY), 1969.
The Modern Schism: Three Paths to the Secular, Harper (New York, NY), 1969.
Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America, Dial (New York, NY), 1970, 2nd revised edition published as Protestantism in the United States, Scribner (New York, NY), 1986.
Protestantism, Holt (New York, NY), 1972.
The Fire We Can Light: The Role of Religion in a Suddenly Different World, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1973.
The Lutheran People, Cathedral Publishers, 1973.
You Are Promise, Argus Communications (Allen, TX), 1974.
What a Catholic Believes as Seen by a Non-Catholic, Thomas More Press (Allen, TX), 1974.
The Pro and Con Book of Religious America: A Bicentennial Argument, Word Books, 1975.
Lutheranism: A Restatement in Question and Answer Form, Cathedral Publishers, 1975.
A Nation of Behavers, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1976.
Good News in the Early Church, Abingdon Press (Nashville, TN), 1976.
Religion, Awakening, and Revolution, Consortium (Wilmington, NC), 1977.
The Lord's Supper, Fortress Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1980.
Religious Crises in Modern America, Baylor University Press (Waco, TX), 1980.
Friendship, Argus Communications (Allen, TX), 1980.
By Way of Response, Abingdon (Nashville, TN), 1981.
The Public Church: Mainline, Evangelical, Catholic, Crossroad Publishing (New York, NY), 1981.
A Cry of Absence: Reflections for the Winter of the Heart, Harper (San Francisco, CA), 1983, revised edition, 1993.
Health and Medicine in the Lutheran Tradition: Being Well, Crossroad Publishing (New York, NY), 1983.
Being Good and Doing Good, Fortress Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1984.
Christian Churches in the United States, 1800–1983, Winston Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1984, 2nd edition, Harper (New York, NY), 1987.
Christianity in the New World, Winston Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1984.
Pilgrims in Their Own Land: Five Hundred Years of Religion in America, Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1984.
The Word: People Participating in Preaching, Fortress Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1984.
Modern American Religion, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), Volume 1: The Irony of It All, 1893–1919, 1986, Volume 2: The Noise of Conflict, 1919–1941, 1990, Volume 3: Under God, Indivisible, 1941–1960, 1996.
An Invitation to American Catholic History, Thomas More Press (Chicago, IL), 1986.
Invitation to Discipleship, Augsburg (Minneapolis, MN), 1986.
Religion and Republic: The American Circumstance, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1987.
A Short History of American Catholicism, Thomas More Press (Allen, TX), 1995.
The One and the Many: America's Struggle for the Common Good, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1997.
Speaking of Trust: Conversing with Luther about the Sermon on the Mount, Augsburg Fortress (Minneapolis, MN), 2003.
Martin Luther (biography), Viking Penguin (New York, NY), 2004.
The Protestant Voice in American Pluralism (essays), University of Georgia Press (Athens, GA), 2004.
The Promise of Grace, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 2004.
When Faiths Collide, Blackwell Publishing (Malden, MA), 2005.
Faith: Confidence and Doubt in Daily Life, Augsburg Fortress (Minneapolis, MN), 2006.
The Outbursts That Await Us, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1963.
The Religious Press in America, Holt (New York, NY), 1963.
Pen-Ultimates, Holt (New York, NY), 1963.
(With Stuart E. Rosenberg and Andrew M. Greeley) What Do We Believe?: The Stance of Religion in America, Meredith (New York, NY), 1968.
(With Douglas W. Johnson and Jackson W. Carrol) Religion in America, 1950 to the Present, Harper (New York, NY), 1979.
(With Joan D. Chittister) Faith and Ferment: An Interdisciplinary Study of Christian Beliefs and Practices, Liturgical Press (Collegeville, MN), 1983.
(With R. Scott Appleby) The Glory and the Power: The Fundamentalist Challenge to the Modern World, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1992.
(With son, Micah Marty) Places along the Way: Meditations on the Journey of Faith, Augsburg Fortress (Minneapolis, MN), 1994.
(With son, Micah Marty) Our Hope for Years to Come, Augsburg Fortress (Minneapolis, MN), 1995.
(With son, Micah Marty) The Promise of Winter: Quickening the Spirit on Ordinary Days and in Fallow Seasons, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1997.
(With son, Micah Marty) When True Simplicity Is Gained: Finding Spiritual Clarity in a Complex World, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1998.
(With Jonathan Moore) Education, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion's Role in Our Shared Life, Jossey-Bass (San Francisco, CA), 2000.
(With Jonathan Moore) Politics, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion's Role in Our Shared Life, Jossey-Bass (San Francisco, CA), 2000.
(With Edward Rothstein and Herbert Muschamp) Visions of Utopia (essays), Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2003.
New Directions in Biblical Thought, Association (New York, NY), 1960.
No Ground Beneath Us, Methodist Student Movement, 1964.
(With Kyle Haselden) What's Ahead for the Churches?, Sheed & Ward, 1964.
(With Robert Lee) Religion and Social Conflict, Oxford University Press (Oxford, England), 1964.
The Death and Birth of the Parish, Concordia (St. Louis, MO), 1964.
(With others) New Theology, Numbers 1-10, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1964–1973.
(With Dean G. Peerman) A Handbook of Christian Theologians, World (Cleveland, OH), 1965, Abingdon (Nashville, TN), 1980.
Our Faiths, Cathedral Publishers, 1975.
(Editor, with Kenneth L. Vaux) Health/Medicine and the Faith Traditions: An Inquiry into Religion and Medicine, Fortress Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1982.
(With Frederick E. Greenspahn) Pushing the Faith: Proselytism and Civility in a Pluralistic World, Crossroad (New York, NY), 1988.
(With R. Scott Appleby) The Fundamentalism Project, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), Volume 1: Fundamentalisms Observed, 1991, Volume 2: Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education, 1993, Volume 3: Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, 1993, Volume 4: Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The Dynamic Character of Movements, 1994, Volume 5: Fundamentalisms Comprehended, 1995.
(With Jerald Brauer) The Unrelieved Paradox: Studies in the Faith of Franz Bibfeldt, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1994.
Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Customs, and Festivals, Facts on File (New York, NY), 1997.
(With R. Scott Appleby) Religion, Ethnicity, and Self-Identity: Nations in Turmoil, University of New England Press (Hanover, NH), 1997.
Also consulting editor to Festivals of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Celebrations, Customs, Events, and Holidays, Checkmark Books (New York, NY), 2002.
EDITOR AND AUTHOR OF INTRODUCTION
(With Peter Berger) The Place of Bonhoeffer: Problems and Possibilities in His Thought, Association (New York, NY), 1962.
(And author of afterword) Where the Spirit Leads: American Denominations Today, John Knox (Atlanta, GA), 1980.
William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, Penguin Books (New York, NY), 1982.
Civil Religion, Church, and State, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
Protestantism and Regionalism, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
Varieties of Protestantism, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
The Writing of American Religious History, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
Protestantism and Social Christianity, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
New and Intense Movements, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
Theological Themes in the American Protestant World, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
Trends in American Religion and the Protestant World, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1992.
Ethnic and Non-Protestant Themes, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1993.
Missions and Ecumenical Expressions, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1993.
Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1993.
Varieties of Religious Expression, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1993.
Women and Women's Issues, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1993.
Native American Religion and Black Protestantism, K.G. Saur (New York, NY), 1993.
Contributor of introductions and essays to works by others; coeditor of Church History, American Society of Church History, and Ecumenical Studies in History, John Knox Press. Author and editor of Context (fortnightly newsletter), 1969; editor of Second Opinion, journal of the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics. General editor of Harper "Forum" series, Lippincott "Promise of Theology" series, and University of Chicago "History of Religion in America" series. Held positions as contributing, assistant, and senior editor for Christian Century; former contributing editor to Christian Ministry, Cresset, Dialog, American Lutheran, and Paddock suburban newspapers; former art editor of Response. Contributor to numerous books, and of religious articles to encyclopedias.
ADAPTATIONS: Books adapted for audio include Martin Luther (four cassettes), Books on Tape, 2004.
SIDELIGHTS: Martin E. Marty is a theologian and historian of modern Christianity whose many books address issues of religious practice and its role in both private and public life. Marty is an ordained minister and a distinguished emeritus professor of the University of Chicago. His books range widely from meditations on aspects of faith to histories of religion, even to studies on the intersection between religion, politics, and education. "People who go to the roots of their spiritual traditions and wrestle with the mysteries they find there are the sort of people Marty likes," wrote Peter Hewitt and William Griffin in Publishers Weekly. His work, noted Mark Silk in Christian Century, "offers readers the opportunity to wander through a copious garden of religious expression, observing the variegated blooms of yesterday…. But what Marty wants us to understand is that above the comings and goings of daily religious life is a public religious discussion—or perhaps a set of religious discussions—and we miss something critical in the nation's cultural life if we dismiss these discussions as just so much chatter."
Ordained a pastor within the conservative Missouri synod of the Lutheran church, Marty is nonetheless liberal enough to be in the vanguard of the Christian ecumenical movement and to act as contributing editor of the progressive Protestant magazine Christian Century. While juggling these two careers, along with those of professor and scholar, Marty has also found time to write or edit dozens of books on religious subjects ranging from Christian perspectives on health to the natures of friendship and grieving. Few academics in any walk of life have been more prolific than Marty. As Christian Century correspondent Richard J. Mouw put it, the author is "a trustworthy guide to what is going on in the rest of American religious life."
Marty's foremost field of expertise is religious history. His Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America, winner of the National Book Award, not only chronicles the course of Protestant religions in this country, but illustrates their influence on the course of national events as well. During the first hundred years of the nation's history, explains Marty, the overwhelming preponderance of white, English-speaking Protestants created a virtual "empire" of values and beliefs. As the Civil War approached, however, Protestantism became divided over slavery and related issues. Waves of Catholic and Jewish immigrants pouring into the country after the war further diluted Protestantism's strength. Marty discusses the confused period that American Protestantism entered at that time and its eventual entry into its present stage which, in his view, is characterized by a new search for unity rooted in spirituality. Walter Arnold reviewed Righteous Empire in Saturday Review, noting: "That Dr. Marty has written such a book at all [considering Protestantism's many forms and its long history in the United States,] especially one so filled with lore and keys to understanding, is a tribute to his learning, industry and courage."
It is from the vantage point of the historian that Marty looks toward the years to come in The Search for a Usable Future. The book was published in 1969, at the end of one of the most tumultuous decades of the century, when conventional morals and religions were challenged as never before. Marty's book probes the reasons for this phenomenon, examines the "new" theologies of the day, and suggests the direction that Christianity might take in order to meet the needs of a changing people, while remaining true to its precepts. "We know of no one better qualified to do what Martin Marty has done in this book," pointed out Robert L. Short in the New York Times Book Review. Short added that "as a historian of the modern church, he possesses an encyclopedic knowledge of the vast cultural changes that have occurred in the past decade; as a theologian of no mean insight, he knows how to put this information together into a significant whole and project it toward the future; as an editor of one of America's most influential Protestant publications, Christian Century, he knows how to express his conclusions with clarity, verve and wit." Commonweal contributor Philip Deasy wrote: "Written in a prose of unfailing readability, The Search for a Usable Future provides all the delight of following a first-rate mind in action. [It is] a rare and inspiring intellectual treat."
One of Marty's most comprehensive writing projects has been his five hundred-page work Pilgrims in Their Own Land: Five Hundred Years of Religion in America. The author presents his history through portraits of individual figures in American history, "pilgrims who marked out new paths and pioneered new ways," explained Christian Century reviewer Robert T. Handy. Critics in numerous publications praised Marty's scope and his engaging style, naming his book an important contribution to religious history as well as an absorbing read. Catherine L. Albanese observed in the Yale Review that Pilgrims in Their Own Land "reads like a book one would not mind curling up with on a winter's evening." Albanese concluded that Marty "has given Americans probably the first significant and comprehensive work in the genre [of public history] by an American religious historian."
With the publication of The Irony of It All, 1893–1919, Marty gave the public a first taste of his multivolume work, Modern American Religion. In a CA interview with Walter W. Ross, Marty explained that his goal in undertaking this project was "to describe the contours of twentieth-century American religion, a task which has never been done before." Some critics have observed how closely religion and politics are linked in Marty's work. Discussing the second volume of Modern American Religion, The Noise of Conflict, 1919–1941, in the New York Times Book Review, David M. Kennedy observed that Marty distinguishes himself from other social critics by insisting that the religious dimensions of America's diversity have had serious political consequences. Kennedy summarized Marty's thesis: "And the apparently arcane arguments that at times convulsed pulpit and pew, synod and minyan and presbytery, Mr. Marty insists, were not 'mere tempests in denominational teapots.' Eventually, these value-laden and deadly serious debates broke out of the confined precincts of sectarian squabbling and took on 'geopolitical significance.' Thus public issues including immigration restriction, labor relations, prohibition, birth control, pacifism or responses to the Great Depression were, Mr. Marty ecumenically claims, 'based in religious beliefs and passions.'" Although James H. Moorhead contended in Chicago Tribune Books that there are few surprises in The Noise of Conflict, he noted that the story is told "with a verve seldom equalled." The critic added that "The Noise of Conflict bears the usual hallmarks of a Marty book: a smoothly flowing narrative, passages studded with suggestive insight inviting further research, and apt quotations that capture the gist of complicated issues."
Between 1996 and 1999 Marty directed a Public Religion Project funded by the Pew Charitable Trust. These meetings of scholars, religious and educational leaders, and political figures sought to delineate the importance of faith in a pluralistic society. Out of these efforts came three books: The One and the Many: America's Struggle for the Common Good, Politics, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion's Role in Our Shared Life, and Education, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion's Role in Our Shared Life. Mouw saw the three works as "a sustained plea for a wide-ranging public conversation in which many voices speak." The One and the Many seeks to dispel both totalist and tribalist thinking—the one would impose a national identity to the exclusion of cultural differences, the other would avoid a national identity in favor of cultural absolutism. In National Catholic Reporter, Maurice Hamington wrote: "Marty recognizes the strength of diversity and seeks a method to celebrate difference while transcending factionalism…. He is a master storyteller who casts a wide net and writes in an accessible style."
Both Politics, Religion, and the Common Good and Education, Religion, and the Common Good advocate a greater openness to religion in both the political and the educational arenas. Christian Century correspondent David A. Hoekema commended Marty for his "discernment of the legitimate concerns and ideals that lie beneath the surface of current political debates." In her review of Politics, Religion, and the Common Good, Journal of Church and State essayist Elizabeth S. Carpenter concluded: "Marty's analysis gives rise to his conviction … that believers should participate in political conversations, as their religious values and perspectives greatly enrich the dialogue…. This book deserves the attention of political believers, nonbelievers, voters, and all who are interested in the contributions religion makes to the justice and morality of our society." America reviewer John A. Coleman likewise deemed Politics, Religion, and the Common Good "a wise and useful book for starting, continuing or refining a conversation about the legitimate role, but with limits, of religion in the public arena."
Visions of Utopia is a collection of essays by Marty and New York Times staffers Edward Rothstein and Herbert Muschamp taken from lectures presented at the New York Public Library. The authors expand on the idea of utopia, a word created by Sir Thomas More, the Greek origins of which mean "nowhere." Utopian Studies reviewer Harold J. Goldberg wrote that "Marty suggests that 'the world would be poorer had no one ever dreamed dreams' of a perfect society…. Humans continue this endeavor because they have a desire for order. Using religion as his focus, Marty examines three classic utopias: Thomas More's Utopia, Thomas Muntzer's apostolic church, and Johann Andreae's Christianopolis…. In the end, while finding ironic fault with each visionary, Marty suggests that utopian thinking plays a vital role in human imagination."
Martin Luther is Marty's biography of Luther (1483–1546), the German monk who defied and divided the Catholic Church, which he considered corrupt, and whose impact on religion continues to be felt today. Marty studies Luther as the man he was, whose vulgarities, flaws, and behaviors punctuated his life. Martin J. Lohrmann wrote in Currents in Theology and Mission that "Marty turns Luther's own law-and-gospel dialectic onto Luther's life, letting sin and salvation dwell together in this human heart." John W. O'Malley commented in America: "Marty is correct, I believe, when he says Luther 'makes most sense as a wrestler with God, indeed, as a God-obsessed seeker of certainty and assurance.' He presents him, thus, as a religious figure and as a Christian theologian, and he rightly does not try to make him sound modern or to translate his message into secular terms."
Other titles by Marty, including The Protestant Voice in American Pluralism and When Faiths Collide, explore the diversity of religions in the United States. The Protestant Voice in American Pluralism is a small book of essays based on a series of lectures delivered by Marty at Stetson University, in which he studies 350 years of Protestantism. In a review for the Catholic Historical Review, Edwin S. Gaustad wrote: "The writing is facile in the best sense of the term: easy, fluent, relaxed, pleasurable. One can readily imagine the Stetson audience being entertained as well as informed." When Faiths Collide is a manifesto in which Marty advocates not merely tolerance of religions other than one's own, but dialogue and mutual ventures, affirming that through cooperation, the ills and needs of the world can be better addressed and met.
In a letter to CA discussing his various activities, Marty once remarked: "I like to think of myself as being in what Paul Tillich called 'boundary situations,' believing people have a perspective that best illumines the human situation if they are not wholly captive of a single situation. So my career has brought together at all times at least two vocations: minister and editor, professor and editor, administrator and professor and editor, and all the time, writer." Aside from his professional activities, Marty also stressed that "family has to be mentioned as a major interest; our house has always been open to others than our own four sons. We brought into the family a brother-sister foster pair, have taken in small boys from Uganda as grade-school 'foreign students,' I now have a stepdaughter, and the like. We try to covenant with several other families in a pattern we call 'collegial families,' an echo of the extended family."
Although Marty once conceived of Modern American Religion as the culmination of his scholarly career, he later told CA that two events"came along to complicate my life." In 1987 he was asked by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to direct the six-year Fundamentalism Project. Around that time, he was also asked to found the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics, which he says has "become one of the nation's major medical ethics centers." "Medical ethics is not my field," Marty continued. "I contribute as an historian, storyteller, humanist, and theologian of sorts." When considering the relation of religion to healing and the relation of healing to extreme militancy, Marty added: "Someone said, 'Marty only gets interested in religion when it heals someone or kills someone.' That is a hyperbolic statement, but it is a reminder to me of the potency, volatility, danger, and promise whenever anyone deals with the sacred, as I like to do."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Dolan, Jay P., and James P. Wind, editors, New Dimensions in American Religious History: Essays in Honor of Martin E. Marty, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1993.
America, November 15, 1997, John David Dawson, review of The One and the Many: America's Struggle for the Common Good, p. 28; July 15, 2000, John A. Coleman, review of Politics, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion in Our Shared Life, p. 24; September 13, 2004, John W. O'Malley, review of Martin Luther, p. 27.
Catholic Historical Review, July, 2004, Edwin S. Gaustad, review of The Protestant Voice in American Pluralism, p. 572.
Choice, July-August, 2005, P.L. Redditt, review of When Faiths Collide, p. 2002.
Christian Century, September 26, 1984, Robert T. Handy, review of Pilgrims in Their Own Land: Five Hundred Years of Religion in America, p. 876; January 29, 1997, Mark Silk, review of Modern American Religion, Volume 3: Under God, Indivisible, 1941–1960, p. 105; June 7, 2000, Richard J. Mouw, review of Politics, Religion, and the Common Good, p. 468; January 3, 2001, David A. Hoekema, review of Education, Religion, and the Common Good: Advancing a Distinctly American Conversation about Religion's Role in Our Shared Life, p. 30.
Commonweal, March 28, 1969, Philip Deasy, review of The Search for a Usable Future.
Currents in Theology and Mission, October, 2004, Martin J. Lohrmann, review of Martin Luther, p. 401.
Journal of Church and State, spring, 2001, Elizabeth S. Carpenter, review of Politics, Religion, and the Common Good, p. 374.
Journal of Religion, April, 2005, John F. Wilson, review of The Protestant Voice in American Pluralism, p. 310.
National Catholic Reporter, September 5, 1997, Maurice Hamington, review of The One and the Many, p. 32.
New York Times Book Review, May 25, 1969, Robert L. Short, review of The Search for a Usable Future; June 16, 1991, David M. Kennedy, review of Modern American Religion, Volume 2: The Noise of Conflict, 1919–1941, p. 27.
Publishers Weekly, February 20, 1981, Peter Hewitt and William Griffin, "Martin Marty," p. 26.
Saturday Review, February 6, 1971, Walter Arnold, review of Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America, p. 32.
Society, July, 2000, A. Javier Trevino, "Sharing Democracy's Community," p. 78.
Tikkun, July-August, 2005, Michael Lerner, "When the Right Breaks the Barrier, How Should a Spiritual Left Respond?" (interview with Marty and Robert Bellah), p. 33.
Tribune Books (Chicago, IL), June 23, 1991, James H. Moorhead, review of Modern American Religion, Volume 2: The Noise of Conflict, 1919–1941, p. 2.
Utopian Studies, spring, 2003, Harold J. Goldberg, review of Visions of Utopia, p. 202.
Yale Review, winter, 1985, Catherine L. Albanese, review of Pilgrims in Their Own Land, p. 290.
University of Chicago Divinity School, http://divinity.uchicago.edu/ (March 31, 2006), biography of Marty.
"Marty, Martin E. 1928–." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 6, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/marty-martin-e-1928
"Marty, Martin E. 1928–." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Retrieved November 06, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/marty-martin-e-1928
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.