Maillet, Antonine 1929-
MAILLET, Antonine 1929-
PERSONAL: Born May 10, 1929, Bouctouche, New Brunswick, Canada; daughter of Leonide (a teacher) and Virginie (a teacher; maiden name, Cormier) Maillet. Education: College Notre-Dame d'Acadie, Moncton, B.A., 1950; University of Moncton, M.A., 1959; University of Montréal, LL.D., 1962; Laval University, Ph.D., 1970.
ADDRESSES: Agent—c/o Author Mail, Northwest Passages, 628 Penzer St., Kamloops, British Columbia V2C 3G5, Canada.
CAREER: Writer. Taught at College Notre-Dame d'Acadie, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada, 1954-60, University of Moncton, New Brunswick, 1965-67, College des Jesuites, Québec City, Québec, Canada, 1968-69, Laval University, Québec City, 1971-74, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, 1974-75, National Drama School, Montréal, Québec, 1989-91; visiting professor, University of Berkeley, 1983; State University of New York at Albany, 1985. University of Moncton, associate professor of French studies, chancellor, 1989-2001. Member of board of directors of Baxter and Alma Ricard Foundation; member of Ordre des francophones d'Amerique, 1984, High Council of the Francophonie, 1987, Academy of Large Montréalais, 1991, and Literary Council of the Foundation Prince Pierre of Monaco.
MEMBER: PEN, Association des Ecrivains de Langue Française, Royal Society of Canada, Academie Canadienne-Française, Societe des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques de France, Society of Arts and Letters of France. Academy of Science of the Institute of Bologna, Italy.
AWARDS, HONORS: Prize for best Canadian play, Dominion Drama Festival, 1958, for Poire-Acre; Prix Littéraire Champlain from Conseil de la Vie Française, 1960, for Pointe-aux-Coques; Canada Council Prize, 1960, for Les Jeux d'enfants sont faits; grants from Canada Council, 1962-63, 1963-64, 1969-70, 1974-75, and 1977, and Québec Department of Cultural Affairs, 1972-73; Governor-General's Literary Award, 1972, for Don l'Orignal; grand prize for literature of the Ville de Montréal, 1973, Prix des Volcans from L'Auvergne, 1975, and France-Canada Prize, Association France-Québec, 1975, all for Mariaagélas; named Officer of the Order of Canada, 1976; Prix Littéraire de la Presse, 1976, for La Sagouine; Prix Goncourt finalist, 1977, and Four Juries Prize, 1978, both for Les Cordes-de-Bois; Prix Goncourt, 1979, for Pélagiela-Charrette; Chalmers Canadian Play Award, Ontario Arts Council, 1980, for La Sagouine; named Officer, French Academic Palms, 1980; member of Knights of the Order of Pleiad, Frédéricton, New Brunswick, 1981; companion, Order of Canada, 1982; officer, National Order of Québec, 1990; appointed to Queen's Privy Council for Canada, 1992; translation prize from Association Québecoise des Critiques de Théâtre, 1992-93, for La Nuit des Rois; named commander, Ordre du mérite Culturel de Monaco, 1993; Great Prize Paul Féval de Littérature Popular, Company of the Men of Letters of France, 1997, for Le Chemin Saint-Jacques; Prize Samuel de Champlain, 2002; Prize of Excellence, Pascal Pear Tree, Council of Arts of New Brunswick, 2002; Prize Montfort for Literature, 2003; named officer, Legion of Honor (France), 2004. Honorary degrees from universities, including University of Moncton, 1972; Carleton University (Ottawa, Ontario), 1978; University of Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta), 1979; Mount Allison University (Sackville, New Brunswick), 1979; St. Mary's University (Halifax, Nova Scotia), 1980; University of Windsor, 1980; Acadia University, 1980; Laurentian University of Sudbury, 1981; Dalhousie University, 1981; McGill University, 1982; University of Toronto, 1982; Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario), 1982; Francis Xavier University, 1984; St. Thomas University (Fredericton, New Brunswick), 1986; Mount St. Vincent University, 1987; Université Ste. Anne, 1987; Bowling Green State University, 1988; Université Laval, 1988; Université de Lyon, 1989, Simon Fraser University, 1989; Concordia University, 1990; University of Maine, 1990;British Columbia University, 1991; Royal Military College of Canada, 1992; University of New England, 1994; University of New Brunswick, 1997: Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2000; University of Victoria, 2001; and University of the Island of Prince Édouard, 2004.
Pointe-aux-Coques, Fides, 1958, reprinted, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1972.
On a mangé la dune, Beauchemin, 1962, reprinted, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1977.
Don l'Orignal, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1972, translation by Barbara Godard published as The Tale of Don l'Orignal, Clark & Irwin (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1978, reprinted, Goose Lane Editions (Frédéricton, New Brunswick, Canada), 2004.
Mariaagélas, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1973, translation by Ben Z. Shek, published as Mariaagélas: Maria, Daughter of Gélas, Simon & Pierre (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1986.
Emmanuel a Joseph a Dâvit (title means "Emmanual with Joseph and David"), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1975.
Les Cordes-de-Bois (title means "Cords of Wood"), Grasset (Paris, France), 1977.
Pélagie-la-Charrette, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1979, translation by Philip Stratford, published as Pélagie: The Return to a Homeland, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1982, translation published as Pélagie: The Return to Acadie, Goose Lane Editions (Frédéricton, New Brunswick, Canada), 2004.
Cent ans dans les bois (title means "Hundred Years in the Woods"), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1981.
La Gribouille, Grasset (Paris, France), 1982.
Crache-a-Pic, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1984, translation by Philip Stratford published as The Devil Is Loose, Lester & Orpan Dennys (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1986.
Le Huitième jour (title means "The Eighth Day") Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1986, translation by Wayne Grady, Lester & Orpan Dennys (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1989.
L'Oursiade, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1990.
Comme un cri du coeur, Essential Editions (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1992.
Les Confessions de Jeanne de Valois, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1992.
Le Chemin Saint-Jacques (title means "The St-Jacques Road") Grasset (Paris, France) , 1997.
L'Ile-aux-Puces, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1996.
Chronique d'une sorcière de vent (title means "Chronicle of a Witch of the Wind"), Grasset (Paris, France), 2000.
Madame Perfecta, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 2001.
Le Temps me dure, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 2003.
Les Crasseux (one act), Holt (New York, NY), 1968, revised edition, 1974.
La Sagouine (monologues; first broadcast by Radio Canada, 1970, adapted for television and broadcast by Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), 1975), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1971-74, English translation by Luis de Cespedes, Simon & Pierre (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1979.
Gapi et Sullivan, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1973, English translation by Luis de Cespedes, Simon & Pierre, (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1987.
Évangéline Deusse (title means "Evangeline the Second"), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1975, translated by Luis de Cespedes, Simon & Pierre (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1987.
Gapi, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1975.
La Veuve enragée, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1977.
Le Bourgeois Gentleman (title means "The Middle-Class Gentleman"), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1978.
La Contrebandière, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1981.
Les Drôlatiques, horrifiques, et épouvantables aventures de Panurge, ami de Pantagruel, d'après Rabelais, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1983.
Garrochés en paradis (title means "Garrochés in Paradise"; produced in Montréal, Québec, 1986), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1986.
Margot la folle (first produced in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1987), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1987.
William S. (first produced in Ottawa, Ontario, 1991), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1991.
Fountain; or, The Comedy of the Animals (first produced at Théâtre of the Green Curtain, 1995), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1995.
Entr'acte (two-act), first produced in Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada, at Dominion Drama Festival, 1957.
Poire-Acre (two-act), first produced in Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, at Dominion Drama Festival, 1958.
Bulles de Savon (one-act), first produced with College Notre Dame d'Acadie in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada, 1959.
Les Jeux d'enfants sont faits (two-act), first produced in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, at Dominion Drama Festival, 1960.
Mariaagélas, first produced in Montréal, Québec, Canada, at Theatre du Rideau Vert, 1973.
Emmanuel a Joseph a Davit (based on the novel of the same name), first produced in Montréal, Québec, Canada, 1978.
La Joyeuse criee (two-act; title means "The Merry One Shouted"), first produced in Montréal, Québec, Canada, at Theatre du Rideau Vert, 1982.
Rabelais et les traditions populaires en Acadie (doctoral thesis), Préface de Luc Lacourcière, Lavel University Press (Québec, Canada), 1971.
L'Acadie pour quasiment rien (title means "Acadia for Almost Nothing"), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1973.
(With others) Les Acadiens, Piétons de l'Atlantique, ACE (Paris, France), 1984.
Tom Jones, The Fantasticks, produced by National Center of Arts, Ottawa, Canada, 1988.
Willy Russell, Valentine, produced at Théâtre of the Green Curtain, Ottawa, Canada, 1990.
(Into French) William Shakespeare, La Nuit des Rois, (first produced in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1993), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1993.
(Into French) Ben Jonson, La Foire de Saint-Barthélemy (title means "Bartholomew Fair"), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1994.
(Into French; and adapter) William Shakespeare, The Tempest, Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1997.
Din, produced at Théâtre of the Green Curtain, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.
(Into French) William Shakespeare, Hamlet, produced at Théâtre of the Green Curtain, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.
(Into French) George Bernard Shaw, Pygmalion, produced at Théâtre of the Green Curtain, Ottawa, Canada, 1999.
Par derrière chez mon perè (short stories), Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1972.
Christophe Cartier de la noisette dit nounours (children's story), Hachette / Leméac (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1981, translation by Wayne Grady published as Christopher Cartier of Hazelnut, also Known as Bear, Methuen (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1984.
Also author of television script Echec au destin, 1983. Contributor to periodicals, including En Route, Modes et travaux, Le Monde, and Les Nouvelles littéraires.
Author's works have been translated into several languages, including German and Rumanian.
ADAPTATIONS: Les Confessions de Jeanne de Valois was adapted as a musical drama by Vincent de Tourdonnet and produced in Montréal, Québec, Canada, 1997. Pélagie-la-Charrette was adapted into a musical, Pélagie, by Vincent de Tourdonnet and produced at National Arts Center Theatre/CanStage, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2004. Gapi was adapted into a film released by the CBC in 1982. La Sagouine was made into a television series.
SIDELIGHTS: The first author to write in her local French-Canadian vernacular about the French-descendent Canadians known as Acadians, Antonine Maillet has earned recognition as a spokesperson for Acadia and a preserver of its cultural and linguistic traditions and identity. Throughout her novels, plays, and nonfiction pieces written over several decades, Maillet relates the story of the Acadian people. From her first novel, Pointe-aux-Coques, published in 1958, to her doctoral dissertation completed in 1970 that catalogued more than 500 archaic French phrases still used in Acadia, to more recent works that tell tales as seen through the eyes of mature heroines, Maillet's focus has been to bring the culture of Acadia to life. Her work has been adapted into musicals and television series and has led to increased tourism in her region. She has also been widely acknowledged for her writing, and has earned numerous prestigious literary awards and honorary degrees from more than thirty institutions.
In the pages of her books and on the stage, Maillet's main characters are often simple, common women from the "wrong side of the tracks." Poor and illiterate, and speaking in their own tongue, they find the courage and will to overcome shortcomings and improve their station in life. Writing of the protagonist of Maillet's novel Les Confessions de Jeanne de Valois, an online contributor to Northwest Passages wrote that the narrator "recounts her life story and shares her thoughts on everything from religion to the role of women in Acadian culture," and "it becomes clear to the reader that the voice of the author freely mingles with that of the character, continually blurring the line between biography and autobiography."
Acadia, the setting for much of Maillet's work, was colonized by the French in the early seventeenth century, and in the mid-eighteenth century it was viewed as a threat by the British government, which controlled Canada at the time. In 1755, in what is known as La Dispersion, the British burned down Acadia's capital city, Grand Pre, killed the Acadians' livestock, and forced as many Acadians as they could find into ships which deposited them at various spots along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia. Many eventually settled in Louisiana. The region is now inhabited by descendants of Acadians who either avoided La Dispersion or returned afterward, and the region has a shared heritage, passed on largely through storytellers, and a language derived from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century French that is different in many ways from both the French spoken in Québec and that spoken in modern France.
In 1971, Maillet captured public attention with the theatrical premiere of La Sagouine. Considered by some critics to be Maillet's masterpiece, La Sagouine is a monologue of an old Acadian cleaning woman as she washes the floor, considers the history of her "beaten and forgotten people," and puzzles over what remains of her Acadian heritage. As Maillet noted, of the evolution of the La Sagouine character: "I didn't invent the word sagouine, but I practically put it into common language. Before, you had the masculine le sagouin, but la sagouine didn't exist that much in French. It's hardly in the dictionary. In spoken Acadian we would use it, though not very often. We would use the diminutive more, la sargailloune, which was a little pejorative, and for that reason I didn't want to give that name to my heroine. So I called her La Sagouine, which was a little better. Now everybody who works as a cleaning woman is a sagouine, since I wrote the book."
The influence of the novel and play has been felt beyond the world of literature. "The village of Bouctouche," Maillet explained, "is officially called the town of La Sagouine. We have the Jeux d'Acadie, which means more or less the Olympics of Acadia, which we have every year; they're called the Jeux d'Acadie au Pays de La Sagouine, the Acadian Games at La Sagouine's Country. So the people identify themselves now as coming from the country of Sagouine, which means to be Acadian."
Another Maillet novel that has earned critical acclaim was her 1973 work, Mariaagélas, which concerns a young Acadian woman who smuggles alcohol during the period of Prohibition in the United States. This book became, in 1975, the first of Maillet's novels to be published in France and one of twenty-five books considered for France's most prestigious literary award, the Prix Goncourt.
Maillet came even closer to winning the Prix Goncourt in 1977 with her novel Les Cordes-de-Bois, losing by only one vote. The novel concerns a hilltop settlement on the New Brunswick coast that is populated by a group of disreputable people known as the Mercenaires. Led by courageous, determined women, the Mercenaires are comprised of social outcasts, including orphans, criminals, vagabonds, idiots, and the infirm, and they are beleaguered by the "respectable" population at the foot of the hill. "The feud between the two groups," remarked Emile J. Talbot inWorld Literature Today, "takes on the dimensions of a moral struggle which . . . justifies the humanity of the poor and lowly." In relating this struggle, the narrator, ostensibly drawing from several Acadian storytellers' accounts of the past while incorporating their techniques and styles of delivery, presents a few different versions of the "facts," thus allowing the renegade community to gain what Talbot described as "a legendary dimension." Moreover, Talbot concluded, "The use of Acadian French, earthy and colorful, the humor of many of the situations, the fascinating array of unusual characters, all contribute to a delightful evocation of a culture little known outside its region."
Pélagie-la-Charrette won the 1979 Prix Goncourt, its author becoming the first non-European to earn this coveted award. In the novel, Maillet relates the story of a group of displaced Acadians who, fifteen years after La Dispersion scattered them throughout the American colonies, begin a return trek by oxcart to their homeland. The main character of the story is the group's leader, Pélagie, a widow whose strength, patience, and determination to take her family and other fellow exiles back to Acadia results in her being called, in English translation, Pélagie-the-Cart. The novel's other characters include Pélagie's lover, an exiled Acadian named Beausoleil who lives aboard his hijacked British schooner, the Grand'Goule, and periodically assists Pélagie and her company in times of trouble; Pélagie's four children; the crippled medicine woman Celina; and the ninety-year-old storyteller, Belonie.
During the grueling ten-year journey through the American colonies to Acadia, Pélagie and her original companions are joined by other displaced Acadians, some of whom complete the trip, others of whom turn back or head for the French subculture of colonial Louisiana. The oxcart caravan endures the American Revolution, Indian warfare, "famine, drought, rains, epidemics, quarrels, defections" before arriving in the much-dreamed-about homeland. Pélagie, however, does not finish the journey. Just before reaching Acadia, she dies, but not before hearing that her homeland is still inaccessible; the British still rule Acadia, and Acadians must live undercover if they live in Acadia at all.
The survivors of Pélagie's trek and their descendents do settle in Acadia, albeit secretly, and one hundred years later narrate Pélagie-la-Charrette, passing on Pélagie's story in the oral tradition by which they learned it themselves. The narrators at times disagree with each other and offer varying accounts of their ancestors' ten-year journey. But together, as an Atlantic reviewer explained, they "gradually weave a tale with the quality of legend—everything is larger than life but blurred around the edges." This legendary or mythic quality of Maillet's work was also noted by David Plante in his New York Times Book Review critique of Pélagie-la-Charrette. Remarked Plante, "The novel is narrated . . . by 'descendents of the carts,' . . . and in the recounting Pélagie and Beausoleil take on the aura of mythological figures . . . in the end they become people of legend."
The character of Pélagie has also become what Henry Giniger of the New York Times described as "a symbol and champion of the [Canadian] French-speaking minority's determination to survive on an English-speaking continent." In her stoic strength and patient persistence she represents the stubborn will of the Acadians to retain their heritage despite the discriminatory treatment by English-speaking Canadians that exists to this day. Moreover, in winning the Prix Goncourt for Pélagie-la-Charrette, Maillet gained for the Acadian language recognized legitimacy in the literary world and renewed hope among Acadians that their linguistic and cultural traditions will be preserved and respected. The story of Pélagie, as Mark Abley explained in his Times Literary Supplement review of Pélagie-la-Charrette, "is written from a proud sense of community and Maillet's individual voice seems all the stronger for it."
Maillet once commented of the logistics involved in committing to paper a language formulated in the seventeenth century that existed solely through oral tradition. "When I wrote Pélagie and La Sagouine, I had to create a written language that had never been written in my country. That language that was Rabelais's or Molière's was written by those authors, but it's not quite the same language that we have, because it had evolved in a different country. We have an American French language. I had to figure out how I could handle that as a written language. I had to invent some kind of a syntax, a style. That was my originality, in a sense. . . . I had to invent a grammar, almost, and to find a way of spelling words that had never been spelled before. I wanted to capture the flavor of the spoken language, and I had to get the pronunciation right, which meant inventing an accent." Furthermore, although the character of Pélagie is fictional, "she's a symbol really of the kind of women who figured in the stories that were told to me. I created the character, but what happened to her is history." In 2004, Canada and France observed the 400th anniversary of the founding of Acadia, and Pélagie-la-Charrette was performed as the musical, Pelagie: An Acadian Odyssey.
In Chronique d'une sorciere de vent, Maillet lets an elderly nun tell the old tale of a beautiful Acadian woman, Carlagne, who, although married, "appeals equally to other men and to women," according to Steven Daniell in a review for World Literature Today. In the story, Carlagne becomes romantically involved with both Marijoli, the wife of a blacksmith, and Yophie, who many think is the devil himself. According to Daniell, "The nun fills her tale with a wide variety of explicit and implicit omens that lend an air of suspense and doom." One such omen, on the night of the Titanic disaster, is the birth of Carlagne and Yophie's illegitimate daughter, whom Marijoli and her husband adopt. Added Daniell, "Minute details about local custom, myth, or even construction add further texture to the story." Summarized Daniell, "Since this novel belongs to a large collection of stories about the same community . . . , familiarity with a broad range of Maillet's works is a distinct advantage. However, as with any well-written novel, Chronique d'une sorciere de vent stands alone quite well, and it can even serve nicely as an introduction to the works of one of today's preeminent French-language writers."
In one of her later novels, Madame Perfecta, Maillet retains her theme of using common woman heroines, this one, a Spanish immigrant housemaid, inspired by her own Spanish housekeeper she had employed years earlier. In the novel, the maid reflects on her life in her strange new homeland, Canada, the hardships of the homeland she left behind, including those created by Franco and the Spanish Civil War, and the trials and tribulations of creating a new life in her adopted home.
In Le Temps me dure Maillet brings back the character, Radi, a young girl who had appeared in two other works, On a mangé la dune and Le Chemin Saint-Jacques, a series that has been considered to consist of autobiographical novels. Le Temps me dure tracks a dialogue between two incarnations of Radi, who keep traveling back and forth in time. The mature woman, now called Radegonde, tries to come to grips with some of the intense moments of her childhood, while the little girl looks to the future and the reaching of her dreams.
In additon to her original writings, Maillet has brought the works of English playwrights to the French-speaking public through her many translations, including French-language versions of William Shakespeare's Richard III, The Tempest, and Hamlet; Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair; Tom Jones's The Fantasticks; and George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion.
In her speech accepting an honorary degree from the Memorial University of Newfoundland, as archived on the Library and Archives Canada Web site, Maillet told the tale of the two frogs that have somehow landed in a bowl of cream. One frog panicks and drowns. The other, though accepting his fate, does not give up and thus tries for hours to scramble out, eventually finding himself on top of a pile of butter. Relating this tale to the story of her people, she commented, "Now we all descend from that little frog, otherwise we wouldn't be here . . . ; that's part of evolution. We are here because we descend from one that survived. We are survivors of a survivor who fought. I think this is a story of your country and mine, or your people and mine, maybe of the whole of the country. . . . We are the lucky ones. We won the lottery." Further encouraging the graduating students at that commencement address, Maillet added, "Every time I wake up, I look: the sun is there for me, the sea is there for me, the world is there for me. . . . Go and give back to the world something to remember you, do something in science, in medicine, in arts, in social work, in everything. Do something so that the world will remember and be grateful that you are alive."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Volume 54, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1989.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 60, Canadian Writers since 1960, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1987.
Godin, Jean-Cleo, and Laurent Mailhot, editors, Theatre Québecois, HMH, 1980, pp. 147-164.
Le Blanc, Rene, editor, Derriere la charrette de Pélagie: Lecture analytique du roman d'Antonine Maillet, "Pélagie-la-Charrette," Presses de l'Université Sainte-Anne, 1984.
Smith, Donald, Voices of Deliverance: Interviews with Québec & Acadian Writers, Anansi (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 1986, pp. 243-268.
Acadiensis, spring, 1983, pp. 171-180.
American Review of Canadian Studies, summer, 1988, pp. 239-248.
Atlantic, April, 1982.
Atlantic Provinces Book Review, May, 1982.
Books in Canada, May, 1982.
Canadian Children's Literature, number 41, 1986, p. 63.
Canadian Forum, October, 1986, pp. 36-38.
Canadian Literature, spring, 1981, pp. 157-161; spring, 1988, pp. 43-56; winter, 1988, pp. 143-149; spring, 1989, pp. 193-196; winter, 1992, pp. 192-194.
Canadian Theatre Review, number 46, 1986, pp. 58-64, 65-71.
Chicago Tribune, January 2, 1983.
Figaro, September 14, 1979; September 23, 1979; November 20, 1979.
French Review, May, 1985, p. 919.
Le Monde, September 14, 1979; November 20, 1979.
L'Express, September 8, 1979; December 8, 1979.
Maclean's, May 5, 1980.
New Brunswick Telegraph Journal, Rosella Melanson, "What Is Lost in a Good Translation Is Precisely the Best," August, 2001.
New Statesman, July 2, 1982.
New York Times, November 20, 1979; December 5, 1979.
New York Times Book Review, March 7, 1982.
Philadelphia Inquirer, October 16, 1983.
Québec Studies, number 4, 1986, pp. 220-336.
Queen's Quarterly, fall, 1992, pp. 642-652.
Quill & Quire, February, 1985, p. 14; June, 1986, p. 37; August, 1986, p. 43.
Studies in Canadian Literature, number 2, 1981, pp. 211-220.
Times Literary Supplement, December 3, 1982.
Toronto Star, February 13, 1982.
Washington Post Book World, March 28, 1982.
World Literature Today, summer, 1978, pp. 429-430; autumn, 1982, p. 646; autumn, 2000, Steven Daniell review of Chronique d'une sorciere de vent, p. 74.
Globe and Mail Online,http://www.theglobeandmail.com/ (April 7, 2004), Kamal Al-Solaylee, "Acadia on Our Minds."
Government of Canada, Collections Web site,http://collections.ic.gc.ca/ (August 4, 2004), "Antonine Maillet, Visionary Epic Storyteller."
Library and Archives Canada Web site,http://www.collectionscanada.ca/ (October 7, 1994), "Lectures, Antonine Maillet."
Northwest Passages Web site,http://www.nwpassages.com/ (August 4, 2004), "Pélagie—The Return to Acadie."
Pays de la Sagouine Web site,http://www.sagouine.com/ (August 4, 2004), "The Author and Her Characters."*