Skip to main content

Jeffers, H. Paul 1934- (Harry Paul Jeffers, M.T. Jefferson, Harry Paul Lonsdale)

Jeffers, H. Paul 1934- (Harry Paul Jeffers, M.T. Jefferson, Harry Paul Lonsdale)

PERSONAL:

Born 1934, in Phoenixville, PA. Education: Attended Temple University; University of Iowa, M.A.

ADDRESSES:

Home—New York, NY.

CAREER:

Writer. Instructor in journalism at Boston University, Boston, MA; producer and news writer for American Broadcasting Company (ABC); Fulbright professor in Thailand; writer, 1967—. Military service: U.S. Army, linguist.

WRITINGS:

NONFICTION

(With Everett McKinley Dirksen) Gallant Men: Stories of American Adventure, McGraw (New York, NY), 1967.

(With Margaret Chase Smith) Gallant Women, McGraw (New York, NY), 1968.

The CIA: A Close Look at the Central Intelligence Agency, Lion Press (New York, NY), 1970.

How the U.S. Senate Works: The ABM Debate, McGraw (New York, NY), 1970.

(With Dick Levitan) See Parris and Die: Brutality in the U.S. Marines, Hawthorn (New York, NY), 1971.

(With Dick Levitan) Sex in the Executive Suite, Playboy Press (Chicago, IL), 1972.

Wanted by the FBI, Hawthorn (New York, NY), 1972.

(Editor) The Adventure of the Stalwart Companions: Heretofore Unpublished Letters and Papers Concerning a Singular Collaboration between Theodore Roosevelt and Sherlock Holmes, Harper (New York, NY), 1978.

Murder along the Way: A Prosecutor's Personal Account of Fighting Violent Crime in the Suburbs, Pharos (New York, NY), 1989.

Who Killed Precious? How FBI Special Agents Combine High Technology and Psychology to Identify Violent Criminals, Pharos (New York, NY), 1991.

(With Sheila MacRae) Hollywood Mother of the Year: Sheila MacRae's Own Story, Carol Publishing (New York, NY), 1992.

Bloody Business: An Anecdotal History of Scotland Yard, Pharos (New York, NY), 1992.

(With Howard H. Schack) A Spy in Canaan: My Secret Life as a Jewish American Businessman Spying for Israel in Arab Lands, Carol Publishing (New York, NY), 1993.

Commissioner Roosevelt: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt and the New York City Police, 1895-1897, Wiley (New York, NY), 1994.

Gentleman Gerald: The Crimes and Times of Gerald Chapman, America's First Public Enemy No. 1, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1995.

Colonel Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt Goes to War, 1897-1898, Wiley (New York, NY), 1996.

(With Kevin Gordon) The Good Cigar: A Celebration of the Art of Cigar Smoking, with illustrations by Gordon, Lyons & Burford (New York, NY), 1996.

High Spirits, with illustrations by Kevin Gordon, Lyons & Burford (New York, NY), 1997.

The Bully Pulpit: A Teddy Roosevelt Book of Quotations, Taylor (Dallas, TX), 1998.

The Perfect Pipe, Burford Books (Short Hills, NJ), 1998.

(With H. Peter Kriendler) "21": Every Day Was New Year's Eve: Memoirs of a Saloon Keeper, Taylor (Dallas, TX), 1999.

Santa Claus, Lerner Publications (Minneapolis, MN), 2000.

Legends of Santa Claus, Lerner Publications (Minneapolis, MN), 2000.

Sal Mineo: His Life, Murder, and Mystery, Carroll & Graf (New York, NY), 2000.

An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland, William Morrow (New York, NY), 2000.

With an Axe, Pinnacle Books (New York, NY), 2000.

Diamond Jim Brady: Prince of the Gilded Age, Wiley (New York, NY), 2001.

The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Great Depression, Alpha Books (Indianapolis, IN), 2002.

The Napoleon of New York: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, Wiley (New York, NY), 2002.

Roosevelt the Explorer: T.R.'s Amazing Adventures as a Naturalist, Conservationist, and Explorer, Taylor (Lanham, MD), 2002.

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.: The Life of a War Hero, Presidio (Novato, CA), 2002, published as In the Rough Rider's Shadow: The Story of a War Hero, Theodore Roosevelt, Ballantine Books (New York, NY), 2003.

The 100 Greatest Heroes, Citadel Press (New York, NY), 2003.

Ace of Aces: The Life of Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, Ballantine Books (New York, NY), 2003.

Disaster by the Bay: The Great San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906, Lyons Press (Guilford, CT), 2003.

History's Greatest Conspiracies: 100 Plots, Real and Suspected, That Shocked, Fascinated, and Sometimes Changed the World, Lyons Press (Guilford, CT), 2004.

The Complete Idiot's Guide to Jerusalem, Alpha (Indianapolis, IN), 2004.

Billy Mitchell: The Life, Times, and Battles of America's Prophet of Air Power, a Biography, Zenith Press (St. Paul, MN), 2005.

Freemasons: A History and Exploration of the World's Oldest Secret Society, Citadel Press (New York, NY), 2005.

I Told You So: Right and Wrong Predictions in American History and the People Who Made Them, Taylor (Lanham, MD), 2006.

Burning Cold: The Cruise Ship Prinsendam and the Greatest Sea Rescue of All Time, Zenith Press (St. Paul, MN), 2006.

Onward We Charge: The Heroic Story of Darby's Rangers in World War II, NAL Caliber (New York, NY), 2007.

Command of Honor: The Heroic Story of a World War II General, NAL Caliber (New York, NY), 2008.

ADULT FICTION

Rubout at the Onyx, Ticknor & Fields (New Haven, CT), 1981.

Murder Most Irregular, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1983.

Murder on Mike: A Harry MacNeil Mystery, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1984.

A Portrait in Murder and Gay Colours, Knights Press (Stamford, CT), 1985.

The Rag Doll Murder, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1987.

Gods and Lovers, Knights Press (Stamford, CT), 1989.

Secret Orders, Zebra (New York, NY), 1989.

Morgan, Zebra (New York, NY), 1989.

Blood on the Nueces, Zebra (New York, NY), 1989.

Texas Bounty, Zebra (New York, NY), 1989.

A Grand Night for Murder, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1995.

Reader's Guide to Murder: A Sergeant John Bogdanovic Mystery, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1996.

What Mommy Said: An Arlene Flynn Mystery, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1997.

Corpus Corpus: A Sergeant Jon Bogdanovic Mystery, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1998.

(As M.T. Jefferson) In the Mood for Murder, Berkley (New York, NY), 2000.

(As M.T. Jefferson) The Victory Dance Murder, Berkley Prime Crime (New York, NY), 2000.

(As Harry Paul Lonsdale) Smoking out a Killer: A Nicholas Chase Cigar Mystery, Avon Books (New York, NY), 2000.

(As M.T. Jefferson) Decorated for Murder, Berkley Prime Crime (New York, NY), 2002.

The Forgotten Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Based on the Original Radio Plays by Anthony Boucher and Dennis Green, Carroll & Graf (New York, NY), 2005.

RECORDINGS

Gallant Men, narrated by Everett M. Dirksen, Capitol Records, 1966.

(With Everett M. Dirksen) Man Is Not Alone, Capitol Records, 1967.

Also author of the sound recording Confrontation at Harvard, narrated by Charles Osgood, Buddah Records.

SIDELIGHTS:

H. Paul Jeffers is a writer with numerous nonfiction, mystery, and Western titles to his credit. His interest in government-sponsored law enforcement activities (the CIA and FBI, Scotland Yard) has also enriched his mystery and suspense novels with their assortment of amateur sleuths. Jeffers has also written a three-part Western series featuring the recurring character Hugh Morgan, a series characterized in Twentieth-Century Western Writers as "a rambling adventure story with some romance thrown in for good measure." According to a contributor to Twentieth-Century Western Writers: "What Jeffers is good at is giving the reader an assortment of rich characters who breathe life into his books. From the whole spectrum of human beings who appear in the stories … Jeffers can, and does, create believable characters."

In his mysteries, Jeffers makes extensive use of his knowledge of classic detective fiction. In A Grand Night for Murder, for example, the crime is set at an awards dinner held by the Mystery Writers of America. An offensive true-crime author walks away with the top prize, leading many of his peers to loudly state their ill feelings for him. When he is found dead the next day, a young detective named Arlene Flynn works with New York City's chief of detectives to hunt for the killer. As they unravel the case, they rely on the wisdom of the greatest fictional detective of all—Sherlock Holmes—to help them out. "The literary references are incessant and delightful," noted a Publishers Weekly writer, who also commented that Jeffers "plays fair … allowing a really alert reader to spot the clues leading to the killer." The reviewer went on write: "A thoroughly professional job." In What Mommy Said: An Arlene Flynn Mystery, Flynn is again the featured detective whose love of mystery serves as "a means for the author to show off his knowledge of Inspector Morse and Sherlock Holmes stories," as noted by another Publishers Weekly contributor.

Jeffers has also written mysteries under the pseudonyms of M.T. Jefferson and Henry Paul Lonsdale. As Jefferson, he has penned several volumes in a series set during World War II and featuring amateur sleuth Kate Fallon. These mysteries deal with matters on the home front rather than on the battlefield. As Lonsdale, Jeffers has used a personal interest in cigar smoking for Smoking out a Killer: A Nicholas Chase Cigar Mystery. Jef- fers's nonfiction titles dealing with crime include Who Killed Precious? How FBI Special Agents Combine High Technology and Psychology to Identify Violent Criminals. In this book, Jeffers details the work of a special profiling unit at the FBI's National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. He explains how the members of this unit use psychology as well as inmate interviews to attempt to come up with basic profiles of the type of person who will commit certain crimes. Genevieve Stuttaford, writing in Publishers Weekly, found this an "interesting if gloomy read."

Jeffers is the author of several books about former United States president Theodore Roosevelt, including Commissioner Roosevelt: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt and the New York City Police, 1895-1897, Colonel Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt Goes to War, 1897-1898, and The Bully Pulpit: A Teddy Roosevelt Book of Quotations. The first tells of Roosevelt's campaign to reform the New York City police department, which during the late 1800s was one of the most corrupt in the country. Within two years of taking office as police commissioner, he effected sweeping reforms and increased the ranks of the force by about 1,700 officers. Booklist reviewer Margaret Flanagan credited Jeffers with writing "a lively, entertaining, and well-researched portrait of a zealous reformer during the historic crusade that successfully launched his career in government." Writing in the Historian, William Carl Klunder also had praise for Commissioner Roosevelt, observing that Jeffers "captures the flavor of New York nightlife during the Gay Nineties." However, Klunder also thought the work "would have benefited from more rigorous editing," and that "the lack of endnotes limits the usefulness" of the book. Colonel Roosevelt picked up where Commissioner Roosevelt left off, detailing Roosevelt's service in the Spanish-American war and his bid for the presidency. A Publishers Weekly contributor called it "a handsome narrative of a crucial period in the career of one of our country's most colorful politicians."

In "21": Every Day Was New Year's Eve: Memoirs of a Saloon Keeper, Jeffers teams up with H. Peter Kriendler to write Kriendler's recollections of the famous New York club that Kriendler's brother founded during Prohibition. Joe Collins, writing in Booklist, called the book "a fun and personal look at a bit of Americana." Jeffers presents a biography of one of the first actors to acknowledge his homosexuality in the book Sal Mineo: His Life, Murder, and Mystery. Mike Tribby, writing in Booklist, noted that Mineo's story is "told with feeling by an author who cared about him."

Jeffers tells a quintessential American success story in Diamond Jim Brady: Prince of the Gilded Age. An immensely prosperous salesman of railroad equipment, Brady was known for his colorful personality and ostentatious ways, both in terms of his expense accounts and his personal life. A Publishers Weekly contributor noted that "the story … is filled with such gusto and vigor that even hardcore business readers will be swept away." Dale Farris, writing in the Library Journal, commented that the author "fully develops this superb historical biography."

Roosevelt the Explorer: T.R.'s Amazing Adventures as a Naturalist, Conservationist, and Explorer continues the author's examination of the life of the twenty-sixth U.S. president as he recounts Roosevelt's expeditions that combined scientific efforts with the president's love of hunting and adventure. William D. Pederson, writing in the Library Journal, commented that "Jeffers's telling will appeal to the general reader." The author takes a look at another U.S. leader from the past in An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland. Noting that the book is most suitable for general not scholarly readership, Historian contributor Charles W. Calhoun commented that the author "is much more at home portraying Cleveland's personality and private life than he is in delineating and evaluating his public life and policies."

In Ace of Aces: The Life of Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, Jeffers presents a biography of the World War I ace American pilot, recounting his impoverished beginnings in Ohio, his legendary exploits as war hero, and his later adventures as a castaway during World War II. Writing in the Library Journal, John R. Vallely commented that the book is a "nicely crafted biography." Booklist contributor Gilbert Taylor called the biography a "solid performance."

Jeffers recounts the impressive military career of Theodore Roosevelt's son in the book Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.: The Life of a War Hero. The former president's namesake served with distinction in both world wars and commanded the Fourth Infantry Division during D-Day operations. "Ted's life story and service to this country warrant telling, and Jeffers tells it well," wrote Ted Behncke, Sr., in Military Review. The author takes on a legendary political character in The Napoleon of New York: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia. Writing in the Historian, Melvin G. Holli commented that author explores La Guardia's childhood and the impact it had on him later and noted: "The strength of Jeffers's book lies in its full coverage of La Guardia's life from his days in Arizona as an ‘Army Brat,’ through his work as a Spanish-American War reporter and his family's repatriation to Italy, to his mayoralty years and demise in 1947." Public Interest contributor Fred Siegel noted that the book "paints a picture of La Guardia's colorful personality." Siegel went on to write: "The mayor emerges here as a quipster and source of urban folklore but also as a highly competent statesman."

The versatile Jeffers has written about tobacco in other titles, including The Good Cigar: A Celebration of the Art of Cigar Smoking. Working with Kevin Gordon, Jeffers explains many facets of cigar production, from the cultivation of the tobacco plant to the manner of rolling cigars, and he discusses how to choose the right cigar. Along the way, the authors also provide anecdotes about famous cigar smokers and famous historical incidents relating to cigars. A Publishers Weekly reviewer termed The Good Cigar "a valuable crash course in the varied brands and accoutrements of the modern tobacco shop." Jeffers performs a similar service for the pipe smoker with The Perfect Pipe, a "pleasant, recreational read, perfect for a smoky night's ease," according to Booklist contributor Mike Tribby. Pipes of all sorts are explained in this book, from the lowly corncob pipe to the fancier Meerschaum and the serviceable briar. In addition, Jeffers presents a guide to the parts of the pipe, pipe history and care, and a brief historical overview of tobacco use. A Publishers Weekly reviewer found this title a "fetchingly illustrated compendium," and "edifying to anyone with a penchant for the occasional puff."

Jeffers returns to the mystery genre with The Forgotten Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Based on the Original Radio Plays by Anthony Boucher and Dennis Green. Here he compiles thirteen short stories told from the point of view of Holmes's confidante, Dr. John H. Watson, all adapted from sixty old radio programs. There are tales of sealed compartments, possible serial murders, and codes that need to be broken. A Kirkus Reviews critic described the work as "a Baker Street dozen of Sherlockian short stories with an unusual pedigree." The same critic, however, felt that the "original radio scripts might have stood better on their own."

Jeffers deals with nautical disasters in his 2006 work, Burning Cold: The Cruise Ship Prinsendam and the Greatest Sea Rescue of All Time. In the volume, Jeffers presents a "workmanlike account of disaster and rescue on the high seas," according to a reviewer for Publishers Weekly. Part of the Holland America line, the cruise ship Prinsendam sank in the Gulf of Alaska in 1980, an event caused by a fire that broke out in the engine room. Despite the icy waters and a raging storm, none of the passengers or crew was lost during the rescue mission performed by the U.S. Coast Guard. Roland Green, writing in Booklist, noted: "The rescue effort was undeniably conducted with the greatest of skill." Green further praised Jeffers for his "thorough" research and his "quite thrilling" story.

Jeffers tells a story of military daring-do in his 2007 title Onward We Charge: The Heroic Story of Darby's Rangers in World War II, a "serviceable introduction to one of World War II's most storied units and the hero who led them," as a Publishers Weekly contributor commented. Jeffers assembles both a brief biography of Colonel William O. Darby as well as a military history of the commando unit he formed in this work. Born in Arkansas and educated at West Point, Darby was put in charge of the First Ranger Battalion, a unit styled after the elite forces of England. His unit trained in Scotland. Subsequently, Darby and his men first saw action at the invasion of North Africa in 1942 and later led the invasion into Italy, where much of the unit was killed by German forces. Darby himself was later killed in action and promoted to brigadier general after his death. Noting that Jeffers relied mostly on secondary sources, a critic in Kirkus Reviews felt that military history buffs might already be acquainted with much of the information in Onward We Charge, but went on to observe that "readers unfamiliar with the Rangers will enjoy this dramatic account of their adventures." The same contributor also found the book "an enthusiastic, only mildly critical account of America's original elite fighting unit." Writing in Officer, John Renninger felt Jeffers "successfully captures the essence of these men and the fight they were willing to take on."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Twentieth-Century Western Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1991.

PERIODICALS

Aviation History, January, 2007, C.V. Glines, review of Billy Mitchell: The Life, Times, and Battles of America's Prophet of Air Power, a Biography, p. 64.

Booklist, February 15, 1992, Ilene Cooper, review of Hollywood Mother of the Year: Sheila MacRae's Own Story, p. 1080; September 1, 1992, Peter Robertson, review of Bloody Business: An Anecdotal History of Scotland Yard, p. 11; September 15, 1994, Margaret Flanagan, review of Commissioner Roosevelt: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt and the New York City Police, 1895-1897, p. 88; December 1, 1995, Mike Tribby, review of Gentleman Gerald: The Crimes and Times of Gerald Chapman, America's First Public Enemy No. 1, p. 591; October 1, 1996, Brian McCombie, review of The Good Cigar: A Celebration of the Art of Cigar Smoking, p. 309; October 1, 1998, Mike Tribby, review of The Perfect Pipe, p. 299; May 15, 1999, Joe Collins, review of "21": Every Day Was New Year's Eve: Memoirs of a Saloon Keeper, p. 1657; November 15, 2000, Mike Tribby, review of Sal Mineo: His Life, Murder, and Mystery, p. 599; October 1, 2003, Gilbert Taylor, review of Ace of Aces: The Life of Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, p. 280; February 15, 2006, Roland Green, review of Burning Cold: The Cruise Ship Prinsendam and the Greatest Sea Rescue of All Time, p. 24.

Historian, winter, 2002, Charles W. Calhoun, review of An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland, p. 418; spring, 2004, Melvin G. Holli, review of The Napoleon of New York: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, p. 147.

Infantry, winter, 2003, Cole C. Kingseed, review of Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.: The Life of a War Hero, p. 51.

Kirkus Reviews, September 15, 2005, review of The Forgotten Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Based on the Original Radio Plays by Anthony Boucher and Dennis Green, p. 1003; May 1, 2007, review of Onward We Charge: The Heroic Story of Darby's Rangers in World War II.

Lambda Book Report, December, 2000, review of Sal Mineo, p. 31.

Library Journal, June 1, 1989, Sally G. Waters, review of Murder along the Way: A Prosecutor's Personal Account of Fighting Violent Crime in the Suburbs, p. 128; June 15, 1991, Belinda Pugh, review of Who Killed Precious? How FBI Special Agents Combine High Technology and Psychology to Identify Violent Criminals, p. 90; February 1, 1992, Marianne Cawley, review of Hollywood Mother of the Year, p. 91; September 15, 1992, Lois Walker, review of Bloody Business, p. 76; August, 1993, Mark A. Raider, review of A Spy in Canaan: My Secret Life as a Jewish American Businessman Spying for Israel in Arab Lands, p. 129; September 1, 2001, Dale Farris, review of Diamond Jim Brady: Prince of the Gilded Age, p. 192; March 1, 2003, William D. Pederson, review of Roosevelt the Explorer: T.R.'s Amazing Adventures as a Naturalist, Conservationist, and Explorer, p. 103; November 1, 2003, John R. Vallely, review of Ace of Aces, p. 89.

Los Angeles Times, January 8, 1984, Nick B. Williams, review of Murder Most Irregular, p. 2.

Military Review, March-April, 2005, Ted Behncke, Sr., review of Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., p. 79.

New York Law Journal, August 28, 1989, Andrew Blum, review of Murder along the Way, p. 2.

New York State Bar Journal, July, 1990, review of Murder along the Way, p. 76.

New York Times Book Review, November 22, 1981, Newgate Callendar, review of Rubout at the Onyx, p. 37; November 6, 1983, Newgate Callendar, review of Murder Most Irregular, p. 53; October 18, 1992, Peggy Constantine, review of Bloody Business, p. 34.

Officer, October, 2007, John Renninger, review of Onward We Charge, p. 51.

Presidential Studies Quarterly, spring, 1995, Arthur K. Steinberg, review of Commissioner Roosevelt.

Public Interest, winter, 2004, Fred Siegel, review of The Napoleon of New York, p. 119.

Publishers Weekly, March 29, 1991, Genevieve Stuttaford, review of Who Killed Precious?, p. 85; May 31, 1993, review of A Spy in Canaan, p. 35; July 25, 1994, review of Commissioner Roosevelt, p. 41; May 8, 1995, review of A Grand Night for Murder, p. 290; October 9, 1995, review of Gentleman Gerald, p. 69; March 4, 1996, review of Colonel Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt Goes to War, 1897-1898, p. 51; September 16, 1996, review of The Good Cigar, p. 65; October 6, 1997, review of What Mommy Said: An Arlene Flynn Mystery, p. 78; July 6, 1998, review of Corpus Corpus: A Sergeant Jon Bogdanovic Mystery, p. 54; September 7, 1998, review of The Perfect Pipe, p. 79; August 20, 2001, review of Diamond Jim Brady, p. 72; November 25, 2002, review of Roosevelt the Explorer, p. 52; January 16, 2006, review of Burning Cold, p. 54; April 16, 2007, review of Onward We Charge, p. 42.

Reference & Research Book News, October, 1991, review of Who Killed Precious?, p. 21.

Washington Post, January 20, 1985, Jean M. White, review of Murder on Mike: A Harry MacNeil Mystery, p. 9.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Jeffers, H. Paul 1934- (Harry Paul Jeffers, M.T. Jefferson, Harry Paul Lonsdale)." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Jeffers, H. Paul 1934- (Harry Paul Jeffers, M.T. Jefferson, Harry Paul Lonsdale)." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/jeffers-h-paul-1934-harry-paul-jeffers-mt-jefferson-harry-paul-lonsdale

"Jeffers, H. Paul 1934- (Harry Paul Jeffers, M.T. Jefferson, Harry Paul Lonsdale)." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Retrieved November 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/jeffers-h-paul-1934-harry-paul-jeffers-mt-jefferson-harry-paul-lonsdale

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.