Esposito, John L(ouis) 1940-

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ESPOSITO, John L(ouis) 1940-

PERSONAL: Born May 19, 1940, in Brooklyn, NY; son of John and Mary (Marotta) Esposito; married Dr. Jeannette Paisker (a corporate manager), July 31, 1965. Ethnicity: "Italian." Education: St. Anthony College, B.A., 1963; St. John's University, Jamaica, NY, M.A., 1966; attended University of Pennsylvania, 1969, and Middle East Center for Arab Studies, Shemlan, Lebanon, 1971-72; Temple University, Ph.D., 1974. Hobbies and other interests: "Running (8 miles), reading and music, watching reruns of Law and Order."

ADDRESSES: Home—4149 Parkglen St. NW, Washington, DC 20007. office—CMCU/ICC 260, Walsh School of Foreign Services, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057-1052. Agent—The Lavin Agency, 872 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139-3073. E-mail—[email protected]

CAREER: Rosemont College, Rosemont, PA, instructor, 1966-69, assistant professor of theology, 1969-72; College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA, assistant professor, 1972-75, associate professor, 1975-82, professor of religious studies, 1984-95, chair of department, 1975-84, chair, International Studies Committee, 1984-86, director, Center for International Studies, 1987-91, Loyola professor of Middle East studies, 1991-95; Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, adjunct professor of diplomacy, 1986-93, professor of Islamic studies, 1987-99; Georgetown University, Washington, DC, School of Foreign Service, founding director of the Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding and professor of religion and international affairs and Islamic studies, 1993—, university professor, 2000—. Oberlin College, visiting professor of Asian studies, 1986; visiting scholar, Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University, 1979-80; senior associate of St. Antony's College, Oxford, 1982-83; researcher in the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia; lecturer at Tel Aviv University, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Haifa University, Hebron University, Al-Azhar University, American University of Cairo, Kuwait University, and King Abdul Aziz University; lecturer for U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development. Member of Committee on Faiths of the World; member of National Council of Churches Task Force on Muslim-Christian Relations; consultant to Independent Broadcasters Associates and National Public Radio.

MEMBER: Middle East Studies Association (member of board of directors, 1983-86; president, 1988-89), American Council for the Study of Islamic Societies (member of board of directors, 1984—; vice president, 1986-89; president, 1989-91), American Academy of Religion, American Society for the Study of Religion, Council on the Study of Religion, College Theology Society (chair of World Religions Section, 1978-80), Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Middle East Institute, International Studies Association, Association of Pakistan and Indic-Islamic Studies, Council on Foreign Relations, Association of Asian Studies, Maghreb Studies Association, American Oriental Society.

AWARDS, HONORS: Fellowship from St. John's University, 1965; National Defense Foreign Language Fellowship from University of Pennsylvania, 1969, for Arabic; fellowship from Middle East Center for Arab Studies; Faculty Fellowship, College of the Holy Cross, 1977, 1982-83, 1990-91; Visiting Scholar, Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University, 1979-80; Elected Senior Associate, St. Antony's College, Oxford University, 1982-83; National Endowment for the Humanities Interpretive Residential Grant, 1990-93; U.S. Institute for Peace, 1992-93.

WRITINGS:

(Editor and contributor) Islam and Development: Religion and Sociopolitical Change, Syracuse University Press (Syracuse, NY), 1980.

(Editor and translator, with John J. Donohue) Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1982.

Women in Muslim Family Law, Syracuse University Press (Syracuse, NY), 1982.

(Editor and contributor) Voices of Resurgent Islam, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1983.

Islam and Politics, Syracuse University Press (Syracuse, NY), 1984, 4th edition, 1998.

(Editor and contributor) Islam and Public Life in Asia, Asia Society (New York, NY), 1985.

(Editor) Islam in Asia: Religion, Politics, and Society, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1987.

Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1988, 3rd edition, 1998.

(Editor) The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact, Florida International University Press (Miami, FL), 1990.

(With Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, John O. Voll, Kathleen Moore, and David Sawan) The Contemporary Islamic Revival: A Critical Survey and Bibliography, Greenwood Press (New York, NY), 1991.

The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1992, 3rd edition, 1999.

(Editor in chief) The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, four volumes, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1995.

(With John O. Voll) Islam and Democracy, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1996.

(Editor) Political Islam: Revolution: Radicalism, or Reform?, Lynne Rienner Publishers (Boulder, CO), 1997.

(With Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Elizabeth Hiel, and Hibba Abugideiri) The Islamic Revival since 1988: A Critical Survey and Bibliography, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1997.

(Editor, with Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad) Islam, Gender and Social Change, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1998.

(Editor, with Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad) Muslims on the Americanization Path?, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

(Editor) The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1999.

(Editor, with Azzam Tamimi) Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, C. Hurst (London, England), 2000, New York University Press (New York, NY), 2000.

(Editor, with Michael Watson) Religion and Global Order, University of Wales Press (Cardiff, Wales), 2000.

(Editor, with R. K. Ramazani) Iran at the Crossroads, Palgrave (New York, NY), 2001.

(Editor, with Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad) Daughters of Abraham: Feminist Thought in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, University Press of Florida (Gainesville, FL), 2001.

(Editor, with Zafar Ishaq Ansari) Muslims and the West: Encounter and Dialogue, Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University (Washington, DC), 2001.

(With John O. Voll) Makers of Contemporary Islam, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2001.

(Editor, with Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane I. Smith) Religion and Immigration: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Experiences in the United States, Rowman & Littlefield, (Walnut Creek, CA), 2002.

Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2002.

What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2002.

(With Darrell J. Fasching and Todd Lewis) World Religions Today, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2002.

(Editor in chief) The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2003.

Contributor to anthologies, including Teaching about Religion in Public Schools, edited by Nicholas Piediscalzi, Argus Communications (Niles, IL), 1977; The Islamic Impact, edited by Yvonne Y. Haddad, Syracuse University Press (Syracuse, NY), 1983; Islam: The Political and Religious Life of a Community, edited by Marjorie Kelly, Praeger (New York, NY), 1984; Movement and Issues in World Religions: Religious Ideology and Politics, edited by C. H. Fu, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1985; Islam, Ethnicity, and the State, edited by Myron Weiner and Ali Banuazizi, University of California Press (Berkeley, CA), 1986; Islamic Reassertion in Pakistan: The Application of Islamic Laws in a Modern State, edited by Anita M. Weiss, Syracuse University Press (Syracuse, NY), 1986.

Contributor to Middle Eastern and Islamic studies journals.

WORK IN PROGRESS: The Islamic World: Past and Present (three volumes), and The Future of Islam, both for Oxford University Press.

SIDELIGHTS: John L. Esposito once told CA: "Early in my study of Islam I became fascinated by the extent to which religion and politics were intertwined. Contrary to modern Western presuppositions, Islam is a total way of life in which religion is integral to state, law, and society. The Shariah, the sacred law of Islam, epitomizes this historic approach, providing a comprehensive blueprint for individual and public life that encompasses worship as well as family, criminal, and commercial law. In my travels I was struck by the extent to which Islam continued to inform Muslim societies despite Western inspired processes of modernization in politics, law, and education. I became particularly interested in the issue of tradition and change, in the relationship of religion to modernization: (1) Does the emergence of modern Muslim societies necessitate progressive Westernization and secularization? (2) Is there evidence of cultural continuity and modern change? (3) To what extent does Islam inhibit or inform the modern transformation of Muslim countries? These are the questions which have shaped much of my subsequent thinking, research, and writing.

"I began with the study of women in Islam—in particular with the relationship of law to social change, focusing on Muslim family law. The status of women in the family has been of central significance for Islamic society from earliest times. Muslim family law (marriage, divorce, and inheritance) has long been viewed as the heart of Islamic law. Modern reform in family law is an index of social change (both real and ideal) and illustrates Islamic reform, its methodology and problems. I began with a comparative study of women in Egypt and Pakistan and progressively extended my travel and research to include North Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. As a result, I published a series of articles on various aspects of Muslim women's changing role in society and a book, Women in Muslim Family Law.

"Realizing the tension between the Islamic tradition and the modern secular state, with its separation of religion and politics, I broadened my study toward the role of Islam in modern socio-political change from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The need for such materials had grown out of my experience in trying to teach about Islam in modern Muslim societies at Holy Cross. As a result, a colleague, John J. Donohue, and I translated and edited Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives which provides direct access to modern Muslim thinkers as they grapple with the problems confronting Islam in a period of rapid change. Complementing this approach, Islam and Development provided country case studies, ranging from Nigeria to Malaysia.

"During the 1970s Americans became progressively more aware of and concerned about stability in the Middle East. The Arab oil embargo in 1973, the Iranian Revolution in 1978-79, and the seizure of the grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia in 1979 contributed to an explosion of coverage of events in the Muslim world. Frustrated by our ignorance of Islam and contemporary Muslim societies and convinced of the importance for both the public and policy makers to better understand the nature of Islamic revivalism and its implications, I brought together a number of leading Islamic leaders and intellectuals with Americans from academia, government, and the corporate world. As a result Voices of Resurgent Islam was published. It provides a historical and ideological perspective on the revival of Islam. The volume includes studies of major figures such as the Ayotallah Khomeini, Muammar Qaddafi, and leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood. Despite these materials, my experience in teaching and consulting reinforced a desire to provide a general introduction for students, government practitioners, and academics in the West who wished to understand the motivating factors, ideology, and actors in Muslim politics today. Islam and Politics and my subsequent work focus on the role of Islam in Muslim politics and the issues which it raises both for Muslims and policy makers.

"As I continue to travel, from the Sudan to Indonesia, I am reinforced in my belief that Islam remains an omnipresent reality and force with which we must come to terms. Yet, this is not a monolithic phenomenon. Differences in Islamic visions are accompanied by profound disagreements regarding the implementation of Islamic rule and law. One need only think of leaders (Anwar Sadat and Ayatollah Khomeini), countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia), and organizations (from peaceful to terrorist). For the vast majority of Muslims, the resurgence of Islam continues to be a reassertion of cultural identity, formal religious observance, family values, and morality, leading to be a better, more Islamic society through a process of gradual social change. A disaffected, desperate minority believe that violent revolution is the only possibility. I believe that if Muslim governments fail to satisfy the political and economic needs of their societies and fail to pursue a path of modernization which is sensitive to their Islamic heritage, Muslim societies will remain in a precarious position in which stability is based, more often than not, on authoritarian rule and force. Such situations will encourage popular antiestablishment disturbances and, at times, revolt. However, if these governments strive to achieve a new synthesis which provides more continuity between the demands of modernity and their Islamic tradition, then a broad range of possibilities exists. In situations such as Iran and Lebanon, where there is an anti-American reaction, it will be important for us to remember that anti-Americanism does not come from Islam or Muslim belief itself but rather may follow from American presence (government and multinational) as a reaction to U.S. policies in a country or region.

"As events in the Muslim world continue to unfold, we must recall that Muslims stand at a crossroads.

Whereas the process of modernization began in the West and has occurred for several centuries, Muslim countries have endured the centuries-long dominance of European colonialism and enjoyed independence for only several decades. The political and socioeconomic character and institutions of Muslim states are far from established. Alongside the education, power, and wealth of the few still stands the poverty and illiteracy of many, compounded by authoritarian regimes as well as superpower politics. It is within this context that many Muslim societies struggle to harness their resources and determine their futures."

Since the publication of the books mentioned in Esposito's interview with CA, he has written and edited many more on the subject of Islam and Islamic nations, making him one of the world's most knowledgeable authorities on Islam. His books have found especially wide readership since the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. Esposito has also given talks to universities, government agencies, and the U.S. military and has been an advisor to the U.S. Congress and to the President George W. Bush administration.

Esposito's book Islam: The Straight Path is an introduction to the faith, beginning with the prophet Muhammad and the Quran and continuing with basic dogma and the creation of the Muslims as a religious and social community. It covers the Crusades, the Abbasid Caliphate, and the Umayyads during the medieval period and then delves into the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires before dealing with Islamic divisions into Sunni and Shiite, the Druze, and the Ismailis. Esposito also thoroughly addresses the theology and law of Islam and their practices and discusses the premodern revivalist movements that have attempted to reclaim ancient traditions in the modern world. In addition, he deals with modernist movements that are attempting to do away with some of these ancient teachings and adapt Islam to the changing conditions of present-day society. Esposito also discusses contemporary Islam, whose dominant theme is resurgence. Many Islamist groups believe in a return to original Islamic sources and to Islamic law and are opposed to Western secularism and to corruption and social injustice. The most radical believe it is right to bring about violent revolution to effect these changes. Esposito discusses Islam and its variations in practice and belief in the Muslim countries, in Europe, and in the United States.

Danny Yee, in a review for Danny Yee's Book Reviews, was disappointed that Islam in Asia is only lightly covered in the book. However, he said, "As history . . . The Straight Path works well, giving a good feel for Islam's historical depth and geographical reach." James F. DeRoche of Library Journal praised the third edition of the book for its incorporation of recent developments in Pakistan and the Middle East, as well as the rising number of Muslims in the United States. He complimented Esposito on his unbiased scholarly prose that is "both straightforward and highly readable."

One of Esposito's most reviewed books is The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, first published in 1992, with a third edition published in 1999. After the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, the book became popular among the general reading public striving to understand why the attacks took place and what the future may hold regarding Islamic terrorists. Esposito points out flaws in the way the United States and other Western countries regard Islamic nations. In a review for Commonweal, George Perkovich wrote, "The nations that have led the world through the twentieth century have little idea how to engage with these societies in anything but frightened, befuddled, and adversarial terms." Esposito writes in his book, "It is important that the vacuum created by the end of the cold war not be filled by exaggerated fears of Islam as a resurgent 'evil empire' at war with the new world order and a challenge to global stability." Instead, U.S. leaders should ask how their policy can transform a perceived Islamic threat into an opportunity to work toward a common global future, Esposito said.

Yet, Perkovich found that Esposito "never completely answers this question. Instead . . . he deconstructs the myth and image of raging monolithic 'Islamic fundamentalism.'" Instead of the term "fundamentalism," which he believes conjures too much of a Christian and Western stereotype and suggests a threat that does not exist, Esposito speaks of Islamic "activism" or "revivalism." Esposito also considers the dividedness among Islamic countries and the abuse by many Islamic leaders of religious faith to build political power. He suggests that the revivalists would probably stop short of installing completely democratic governments, ruling out participation by leaders and political parties not in full alignment with their religious beliefs. Esposito also focuses on the many Islamic groups, such as Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, which fulfill real social and economic needs of the people.

The author also warns the U.S. government against minimizing reasons given by Muslims for their criticism of the United States: its support of Israel, its imperialism, and its support of certain oppressive regimes while ignoring atrocities such as the Serbian slaughter of Bosnian Muslims (against which the U.S. military later intervened). Esposito concludes that the United States must recognize the right of Islamically oriented states to exist in accordance with its policy that all people have a right to determine their future and choose their representatives. However, said Perkovich, U.S. support of human rights and political participation in Muslim countries will fail "if it is heavy-handed and self-righteous. It requires nuance, pragmatism, and an empathetic tolerance of context. These are precisely the attributes vitiated by our current portrayal of the fundamentalist threat."

Harold Vogelaar of the Christian Century described The Islamic Threat as "one of the finest attempts to explore the reality and the myth behind this renewed fear of Islam. One hopes this book will be read by all who sincerely think of Islam as the 'household of Satan' threatening Christian faith, and also by those who do not fear Islam but consider it a political and social threat." Antony T. Sullivan of the Arab Studies Quarterly wrote, "Esposito makes special efforts to demonstrate just how misleading are so many of the stereotypes which continue to impede Western comprehension of Islam and contemporary Islamic revivalism. American media and governmental elites would do well to give his analysis careful attention." Sullivan congratulated Esposito for "this gracefully written contribution to public enlightenment concerning our Muslim neighbors."

Esposito is not without critics, however. Stephen Howe, in a review for New Statesman & Society, found little that was new in Esposito's arguments, saying that many Arab writers, notably Edward Said, had made the same points. Howe remarked that Esposito "creates . . . an excessively homogenized image of a western media campaign against Islam. [Yet,] most of those he quotes are drawn from very narrow circles of pundits, far-right politicians and pro-Israel propagandists." Kirin Aziz Chaudhry, writing in the Political Science Quarterly, pointed out that The Islamic Threat "is vulnerable to a number of criticisms. . . . It makes an argument that is already quite well represented in the Middle East area studies literature. . . . It fails to analyze the empirical material in a way that illuminates the consequences of different policies. . . . Esposito . . . accepts the notion that the Islamic revival is a global phenomenon that, its diversity notwithstanding, can be analyzed as such." An Economist contributor thought Esposito covered too much ground to make an effective argument. "In trying so hard to be comprehensive, he blurs the distinction between the important and the less important," the contributor wrote. He gives "too little weight to such crucial influences as Zionism and the kneejerk support of the United States for Israel. And he hardly mentions the economic plight of much of the Muslim world."

A Middle East journal contributor praised The Islamic Threat, saying, "This lucid, often provocative, study is intended to reach not only students or specialists but a wider general public. It always remains objective and can only help spread mutual understanding instead of the alienation, fear and mutual resentment which are too commonly found."

In another widely reviewed book, Islam and Democracy, Esposito and coauthor John O. Voll explore the possibilities of combining Islamic societies and democracy through case studies from six primarily Islamic countries: Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Algeria, Malaysia and Sudan. The authors examine three operational concepts of Islam which could establish a form of democracy in Islamic nations, although this form might not look like Western democracy. These concepts are shura (consultation of the people by the leaders on conduct of the state), ijma (consensus or collective judgment of the community), and ijtihad (independent interpretive judgment, in which the people apply informed interpretation of divine guidance to the problems and issues of their time).

Esposito and Voll attempt to "refute the common Western view that political Islam and democracy are antithetical," said Joshua Muravchik in a review for First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religious and Public Life. Muravchik took issue with the authors on several points. He observed, "Indeed there is something unserious about this whole work, beginning with its failure to take frank account of the current dearth of democracy in the Islamic world. . . . The Islamic world boasts a variety of regimes, but what most of them share is a tendency toward tyranny." Muravchik acknowledged that the authors make a good point in that the Christian world evolved into democracy through basic principles of the religion and that the Islamic world may do so through the principles mentioned above. Still, the reviewer wrote that "much progress needs to be made before Islam makes its peace with democracy. That progress, however, will find no help from the likes of Esposito and Voll, with their relentless apologies for the most retrograde elements in the Islamic world and their insistent obfuscation of the basic principles of democracy as nothing more than a Western 'style'." William B. Quandt of Foreign Affairs thought the authors' inclusion of the leadership of Hassan Turabi of Sudan "detracts from an otherwise sensible discussion of reform in failing political systems."

Mahmood Monshipouri, in a review for the Review of Politics, found that Islam and Democracy "offers no concrete policy guidelines" for implementing democracy in Islamic societies. He wrote, "The broad and abstract nature of the discussions . . . does not allow room for drawing an important distinction between democracies and . . . protective regimes. . . . Elections . . . have plunged some countries . . . into endless trouble." Monshipouri also thought a discussion of why Muslim women play such a minuscule role in their countries' governments should have been included. Even so, Monshipouri concluded that Islam and Democracy has a "depth of analysis regarding the complex and dynamic relationships between Islamic resurgence and democratization" and that the authors "make their case very elegantly and cogently, and support their arguments with meticulously investigated case studies."

Political Science Quarterly reviewer Stephen Pelletiere said he believed the authors do not come "to grips with the problem they have set for themselves." His primary question went unanswered: If Islam itself is not causing the violence being carried out in its name, what is causing it? Pelletiere concluded that the book is valuable as a resource about general Islamic religious practice and movements, but he said, "learning about a religious phenomenon specifically tied to present day politics is not on offer here." Similary, Adam Tarock of the Australian Journal of Political Science called the book simply "a very valuable addition to the literature on Islam and Islamic societies."

Middle Eastern Studies contributor Gabriel Warburg, in a lengthy review of Islam and Democracy, wrote, "The authors seem to glorify political participation and civil society, as opposed to authoritarian oppressive regimes. However, both seem mistaken attempts to transplant Western ideas and institutions into regions which do not seem to be ready or willing to embrace them." Reza Afshari, in a review for Journal of Church and State, believed likewise, saying, "In countries under discussion, the sociopolitical and economic realities are too messy to be neatly remade by any single ideological paradigm, religious or secular; and, most likely, peoples will stumble from one painful experimentation to another on the bumpy road to a very uncertain future. No historical judgment is appropriate; no premature scholarly celebration, however subdued, is called for." Afshari also disagreed with the authors' assessment of case studies, concluding, "Islamic revivalism has aggravated the existing national divisions and political conflicts, often exacerbating the tensions associated with economic inequality, factionalism, and religious-ethnic diversities. Only time would tell whether politicization of Islam for these countries was anything more than an addition to the twentieth century's list of self-inflicted wounds."

Charles E. Butterworth, in a review for Arab Studies Quarterly, concluded, "John Esposito and John Voll have provided an excellent portrait of the status of democracy in the Islamic world today. Their deep understanding of Islam, familiarity with Islamic culture, and solid knowledge of Islamic history make their exposition highly readable and most persuasive. Scholars, students, and even the generally interested public will learn from it."

Esposito was both editor and contributor to the 1997 volume, Political Islam: Revolution, Radicalism, or Reform? The book grew out of a conference at the Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University, which is directed by Esposito. It is divided into three sections: "Political Islam as Illegal Opposition," "Islam in the Political Process," and "The International Relations of Political Islam." Chapters are written by authoritative voices on the subject of Islam, including Lisa Anderson, Mohsen M. Milani, S. V. R. Nasr, Raymond William Baker, Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Barnett R. Rubin, John O. Voll, and Esposito. Containing many of the same arguments presented in Esposito's earlier work, The Islamic Threat, this book furthers that discussion, with several of the chapters built around country studies, discussing regional governmental arrangements and economies.

Studies in Comparative International Development reviewer Jillian Schwedler wrote, "Although most comparativists continue to broadly essentialize and exclude Islamic regions from their comparative models, the contributors to this volume have done a tremendous job not only in presenting a valuable set of well-researched and informative case studies, but moving beyond a rearticulation of Esposito's 1992 thesis." Schwedler thought Baker's chapter on the emerging centrist Islamist movement in Egypt is "one of the volume's most engaging contributions," because it shows that a movement can be nonviolent and fruitful and can be carried out from the grassroots level. The reviewer recommended this book for Middle East specialists but especially for those who are not specialists, saying they will find a "wealth of empirical information describing the diversity of Islamist movements, economic and institutional constraints," as well as many possibilities for comparing political styles of the regimes across regions.

Louis J. Cantori, in a review of Political Islam for the American Political Science Review, remarked that the book "may be one of the single most important scholarly volumes on the controversial subject of political Islam." He praised the book's authors and its organization, which, he said, "separates radical political Islam as a numerically less important phenomenon from reformist Islam and Islam as a worldwide power." Cantori concluded: "This volume is rich in its analysis of the general characteristics of political Islam and also in its important case studies. . . . In the process of telling its complex story so effectively, the volume throws into contrast the conceptual barrenness of a mainstream political science whose intrinsic pluralism fails in application to the non-Western world." Glenn E. Perry, in a review for Perspectives on Political Science, praised the volume, stating that it "presents enlightened analyses of matters that are scarcely ever treated in the U.S. mass media or in materials such as general political science textbooks in other than an illinformed and prejudiced fashion." Perry touted the book as "essential reading for all those who are seriously concerned about Middle Eastern affairs or religion and politics generally." He also concluded, "It should be a high priority for libraries and should be assigned to students in a variety of courses."

Arab Studies Quarterly contributor Antony T. Sullivan also highly recommended Political Islam. Referring to the contributions as being "uniformly of excellent quality," Sullivan said the book should be "required reading by those charged with the formulation of American foreign policy" and that it "qualifies as that rare compendium deserving of the most careful attention by scholars and government officials alike." Commenting on Esposito's chapter on the Persian Gulf states, Sullivan wrote that the author "notes that the change of attitude by Islamists in many Arab countries from censure of to support for [Saddam] Hussein after he seized Kuwait was occasioned by America's decision to take the lead in ousting Iraq from that country." Sullivan quotes Esposito as saying, "Saddam Hussein might be wrong, . . . but it is not America who should correct him." Sullivan continued, "Esposito notes the inconsistency of American insistence on rigorous implementation of all U.N. resolutions concerning Iraq and its prevention of similar resolutions from being enforced that have been directed against Israel." In conclusion, Sullivan found that, "On all counts, this book simply represents a five-star performance."

Robert Springborg, in a review of Political Islam for the Australian Journal of Political Science, observed, "The volume is a very useful antidote to those interpretations that see political Islam as a monolithic, threatening force, invariably opposed to Western interests and even 'Western civilisation' writ large. . . . The collection argues that . . . political Islam can be a force for stabilising and even democratizing political orders, rather than one for fitna, the 'chaos' so much decried by Islamic political theory and jurisprudence, to say nothing of being feared by those Washington decision-makers." As'ad AbuKhalil, in a review for the Journal of Palestine Studies, commented on Yvonne Haddad's chapter on the Palestinians, saying she "presents a detailed reading of the position of fundamentalists on the peace process, although she can be criticized for cleaning up the language of the fundamentalists. . . . This is not meant to imply that the so-called peace process is just and sound; it needs to be derailed because it merely perpetuates the historical injustices against the Palestinian people. But the fundamentalists, given their rhetoric and actions, are not the logical candidates for the restoration of any kind of justice." AbuKhalil also said John Voll, in his chapter on the relations between Islamist groups, "wisely discredits the international Islamist conspiracy theory, while providing information on some common features shared by world fundamentalist organizations." AbuKhalil concluded by saying, "Those who wish to begin studying the subject of political Islam to escape the misconceptions abundant in Western books and newspapers should read this book."

Middle East Policy reviewer Mahmood Monshipouri, in a review of Political Islam, commented on Rubin's chapter, "Arab Islamists in Afghanistan," saying the author "reminds us that Arab Islamists continue to be active in Afghanistan so long as the international community is not providing Afghans with any reliable alternative to the aid they provide. Rubin's reasoning concerning the internal logic of violence in the Arab world is well established: the omnipresent violence . . . is traceable neither to a handful of activists returning from Afghanistan nor to other exogenous sources; rather, its roots are indigenous. In the post-Cold War world, Rubin warns, one needs to be aware of the illusion as well as the danger of replacing the Soviet Communist threat with the 'undifferentiated image of the fundamentalist terrorist.'" Although Monshipouri said he would have liked to see more emphasis on the issue of globalization and that he thought Turkey should have been included among the countries discussed, he closed his review by saying, "In a rigorous account of what continues to be a little-understood subject, Professor Esposito and the other contributors to this volume have sparked a lively discussion in both academic and policy circles about the impacts, both real and potential, of political Islam. This book is a must-read for anybody eager to probe beneath the surface of this challenging subject."

Esposito collaborates with Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad as editor of several books, one of which is Islam, Gender and Social Change. A compilation of case studies from a variety of nations and Muslim contexts, the book contains eleven essays and is divided into two sections, one focusing on conceptual issues and the other on the case studies themselves. Gender relations and politics in Islamic nations are discussed in relation to class, politics, personal identity, and religion. In a chapter on state-sponsored feminism in Egypt, Mervat Hatem outlines state programs for the education of women that channel them into traditional feminine roles, such as those of teacher, nurse, and secretary. Rural women's labor in farming has been disregarded, with the ownership of land being designated primarily to men. And while education and professional reforms brought women some gains, personal status laws governing marriage, divorce, and inheritance were left to the strictly conservative religious authorities. In recent years, the government has placed more emphasis on motherhood as the primary role of women, discouraging women from joining the professions and even the workforce, except in dire economic need, and then only when covering themselves to remove all traces of their gender.

Journal of Women's History writer Jasamin Rostam-Kolayi pointed out, "Hatem's conclusions have significant implications for women challenging the state. She alerts us to the limitations of state feminism, the secular state's strategic positioning of family issues in the domain of religion, and the modernizing dynamic within Islamist discourses which replicates unequal gender relations. Studies that feature Islamist women themselves, however, present more nuanced and conflicting findings." May Seikaly's essay on women and work in Bahrain includes interviews with many modern-day women, who insist that it is their right to work to help support their families as long as their jobs include gender-segregated workplaces and they wear hijab, or traditional Muslim dress. Another essay, by Afsaneh Najmabadi, includes writings from the Persian-language women's magazine Zanan, founded in 1992. Many of the magazine's contributors have written articles that redefine terms reinforcing the subordination of women so that they "envision more cooperative, egalitarian relations between husband and wife and a more equal status for women in society," said Rostam-Kolayi. Yet, she pointed out that the author does not say who Zanan's readers are, and she concludes that progressive strides advocated by the magazine are not being made in many Muslim nations.

With Azzam Tamimi, Esposito edited the collection of essays Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, published in 2000. In a review for the Middle East Journal, Henry Munson said the book suffers from a "moral myopia" common to Middle Eastern studies. Munson found the book to be mainly a critique of the prevalent secularist tendency to regard Muslims combining religion and politics as dangerous extremists. He found flaws in essayist Peter Berger's work, "Secularism in Retreat," which makes the claim that "the critique of secularity common to all the resurgent movements is that human existence bereft of transcendence is an impoverished . . . condition." Munson asks whether the volume's essayists could not simply accept the fact that life without some form of religion is impoverished for all people, without an effort to create a religious state.

Esposito has edited two books on Iran. The second, Iran at the Crossroads, edited with R. K. Ramazani, presents the conflict between a fledgling Iranian democracy headed by President Mohammad Khatami and a parliament and the superior rule of the Islamic component, headed by the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and his militant conservative forces. While Iran is being introduced to the concepts of democracy and has twice elected its president, the religious leader wields the greater power in the country. Essayist Mohsen Milani predicts that a full transition to democracy in Iran will be slow and violent, and he recommends collaboration between the two leaders as far as possible. Essayist Farideh Farhi writes about the necessary adjustment of the Iranian political system to socioeconomic, political, and cultural changes, including changes in women's rights. Farhi stresses that political discussion about change in Iran is far ahead of actual changes. Essayist Haleh Esfandiari also writes about the gains Iranian women have made and the techniques of organization and lobbying they have learned in pursuit of greater freedoms. In a review for Middle East Policy, Mahmood Monshipouri commented that both authors' chapters "could have benefited from a much more in-depth analysis of the legal traditions and paternalistic attitudes still pervasive in all aspects of Iran's society and polity." Monshipouri also thought that greater attention to the study of art and cinema in Iranian culture would have improved these chapters, since it is through these media that many changes are being effected.

Other chapters in the book focus on Iran's economic problems; the religious jurist in Iran; Iranian foreign policy toward Russia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus after the collapse of the Soviet Union; European perspectives on Iran; the alienation between the United States and Iran; and Iran's national interest, including the globalization of its economics and communications. Monshipouri concluded his review with some criticisms, saying, the book "seems to have ignored some new developments, such as the attitude of Iranian policy makers and academia to the processes of globalization and Iran's global interests. One of the areas inadequately explored . . . is that of the decline of Islamic ideology and leadership. Islamic political ideology . . . has been more seriously called into question by a disenchanted public, the youth culture and many other forms of protest. Sorely missing from this volume is a detailed discussion of the state of human rights in Iran in view of the current practice of public flogging, limits to religious freedoms, the closure of reformist newspapers, and cultural and political disputes over what constitutes universal human rights." However, the reviewer said, "Criticisms apart, this book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the complexities and contradictions inherent in Iranian politics and society." In a review for Library Journal, Nader Entessar called Iran at the Crossroads "engaging and informative" and "scholarly yet accessible."

Esposito and coauthor John O. Voll published Makers of Contemporary Islam in 2001. This book is an overview of the lives and writings of nine Muslim activist intellectuals of the second half of the twentieth century, whose works span three different periods in the development of modern Islamic thought and who represent Islamic societies from North Africa to Southeast Asia. These nine controversial figures have been both accepted and rejected by their people or by political leaders, and many are at cross purposes with other Islamic activists in their regions. The nine figures are: Ismail Ragi al-Faruqi, Khurshid Ahmad, Maryam Jameelah, Hasan Hanafi, Rashid Ghannoushi, Hasan Turabi, Abdolkarim Soroush, Anwar Ibrahim, and Abdurrahman Wahid. A major theme of the book is whether Shari'a, or Islamic law, should be established as the governing law of Muslim nations. In a review for the Middle East Journal, Linda S. Walbridge objected to some copyediting errors but said the book nevertheless "makes a valuable contribution to the study of modern Islamic movements. It allows the reader to see how the 'intellectual descendants' of major figures such as Sayyid Qutb and al-Mawdudi have incorporated or rejected their forebears' ideas in shaping the discourse of Islam in the modern world." Michael R. Fischbach, in a review for the Journal of Palestine Studies, stated that Esposito and Voll's work fills a "void in the literature on Islamic resurgence" by illuminating the role of intellectuals.

In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States by the Islamic extremist organization al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden, Esposito wrote two books to help the American public and other Westerners understand what might have been the motives behind the attacks. The first of these is Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. In this book, Esposito explains in detail the important Muslim concept of jihad (religious war) and its many interpretations, from one of personal striving for religious obedience to the most extreme, which calls for open aggression against those thought to be the "infidels." Esposito includes a brief biography of bin Laden and of other Islamic extremists whose teachings have, over time, given rise to the modern-day thinking that is responsible for terrorist acts such as suicide bombings and the destruction of the World Trade Centers and the Pentagon attack in 2001, using American passenger planes. Esposito reiterates some of the points made in earlier books, such as The Islamic Threat, that many Muslims object to the U.S. support of Israel and to its aggressive presence in the Middle East. The author also shows how economic conditions and political underdevelopment in Muslim nations have contributed to anger and resentment toward the United States, and he examines the struggle for women's rights in Muslim countries.

According to reviewer Muqtedar Khan, in the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Esposito "unravels the layered complexity of global politics and explains how the phenomenon of global terrorism articulated in the language of Islam has emerged as a counterforce to Pax Americana." Khan said, "Esposito also addresses the loud claims of American neoconservatives that Islam itself, not just radical Muslims, is inherently incompatible with the cluster of values which some pretentious Westerners call Western and liberals call universal." Esposito, in his book, expresses concern that the so-called war on terrorism, with its military, rather than diplomatic, thrust, will prove counterproductive to peace and instead call forth more terrorist attacks on Western countries.

Khan and other reviewers noted a shift in Esposito's position on Islamic revivalism from his 1992 book The Islamic Threat to the present volume. In his earlier work the author seemed not to believe that extremists would carry their jihad as far as they have, but in Unholy War he notes that a lot has happened regarding the Muslim world since 1992. He advises Western leaders to rethink their policies on Islamic nations and makes it clear that American meddling in Muslim affairs has made the world more dangerous for Islam and for Americans. Khan concluded that Esposito's Unholy War "is a masterful rendition by a scholar in his prime. . . . Journalists, academics, students, policymakers and attentive people who care about the ramifications of 9/11 cannot afford not to pick up this book. Once they do, they will put it down only to reflect on the issues it raises."

In an opposite and somewhat angry review, Patrick Clawson of Commentary found that, in contrast to Esposito's earlier book, The Islamic Threat, "we now learn that when modern extremists call for jihad against Muslims deemed un-Islamic, or for spreading the religion by the sword, they are following well-established tradition. . . . As in his previous book, Esposito searches in Unholy War for ways to blame the West for every ill of the Muslim world. . . . Esposito's eagerness to attack the West at every turn stands in sharp contrast to his habit of excusing troubling Islamist practices." Clawson concluded, "It may be tempting to dismiss the intellectual tendency represented by Esposito as inconsequential—after all, U.S. policy toward Islamist radicals and those who harbor them has of late been rather tough. But . . . those who downplayed the dangers posed by the currents of radical Islam had become, by the early 1990s, an entrenched academic elite, while those sounding the alarm were effectively marginalized. The shock delivered to the United States nine months ago has reopened this broad discussion, and in the world of opinion there are encouraging signs of a more realistic appraisal of our adversaries."

In a more favorable review, Nader Entessar of Library Journal called Unholy War "essential reading for every concerned citizen" who wants to understand Islam and its struggles. A Publishers Weekly contributor called the book "a welcome antidote against simplistic attitudes toward Islam." A reviewer for Kirkus Reviews described the book as "a primer on modern varieties of terrorism and a well-reasoned plea for tolerance" in these times. A contributor to About.com commented, "Anyone interested in learning what sorts of political, religious and social factors have led to the current state of Islam, and perhaps what sorts of changes may be necessary for a long-term improvement . . . would be hard-pressed to find a better starting point than Esposito's book."

What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam is a compilation of the most pressing questions Esposito has been asked in his many talks about Islam. He provides answers to such questions as "What do Muslims believe?, What is the Muslim scripture?, What is meant by Holy War?," and "Why do Muslims hate us?" This is a short and simple book, accessible to the general public, and highly informative on the subject of the world's one billion Muslims.

Esposito has edited three reference works on Islam: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, The Oxford History of Islam, and The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Reviewers found the first to be more suited to a general audience and to students than to scholarly researchers but to contain a wide variety of relative subjects, with some 750 entries. The two basic types of articles—with word counts that range from 500 to 10,000—are those covering Islamic religious, legal, and political topics as well as biographies of some 100 contemporary Islamic leaders and scholars.

These articles are listed under their proper names or Arabic-Islamic terms. The second type of article is listed under English terms and covers broad concepts, such as Economics, Literature, Medicine, Cinema, Dress, Human Rights, Women in Islam, and Health Care. Journal of the American Oriental Society reviewer Ira M. Lapidus found the first type of article to be the encyclopedia's strongest aspect. Some of the topics of the second type were adequately covered, Lapidus pointed out, but others were too brief to give a full understanding of the issues without using the bibliography to read further. Lapidus found the topic of Muslim minorities in non-Muslim countries to be the most lacking. Although he wrote that the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World "will not work well as a reference work for scholarly research," Lapidus concluded that, "All in all, this work is a useful addition to the repertoire of research and information tools, and is particularly welcome for making Islamic subjects accessible and intelligible to a wider non-scholarly public." Sandy Whiteley of Booklist also found the encyclopedia most useful to the general public, but she praised Esposito's efforts, saying he "has recruited more than 450 distinguished contributors from the fields of art history, religion, science, anthropology, political science, and other disciplines. . . . Every attempt has been made to provide a balanced approach, and the inclusion of contributors from many parts of the world has helped to avoid what the editor calls the 'pitfalls of Orientalism.'"

The Oxford History of Islam contains fifteen chapters and more than 300 colorful illustrations. Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, in a review for Middle East Policy, said the book covers "most areas of interest to those who would widen their knowledge of Islamic history from 'Muhammad and the Caliphate' to 'Contemporary Islam.'" Ahmad found the first chapter, written by Fred M. Donner, on early Muslim history to the Mongol conquest to be "marred by oversimplifications and allusions that are impenetrable by the novice." He praised other chapters, however, calling Majid Fakhry's article on the complexities of Islamic philosophy and theology perhaps the best. The reviewer also enjoyed the chapter on art and architecture, by Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom, for its carefully chosen illustrations and for the authors' "appreciation for the theological significance of Islamic art as well as for its artistic merits." Ahmad praised Nehemia Lentzion's chapter "Islam in Africa to 1800" and Jane I. Smith's chapter on Muslim-Christian interactions.

He also commented favorably on chapters related to modern Muslim states, the globalization of Islam, and on Esposito's own chapter on contemporary Islam. Harold S. Vogelaar of the Christian Century highly recommended the volume "because John Esposito has done so masterful a job of presenting a history of Islam that moves with integrity from its humble origins to its current worldwide significance." Vogelaar said the writers "select out of a vast ocean of material those events, people and ideas that make a particular topic lucid and understandable, especially for readers new to the field." Michael W. Ellis, in a review for Library Journal, called the book "meticulous and thorough, readable and comprehensive." Michael R. Fischbach, in a review for the Journal of Palestine Studies, said the Oxford History of Islam "surely will come to be regarded as a standard work in the field for years to come."

Esposito more recently told CA: " In 1978-79, as a result of the impact of the Iranian revolution, I was offered several book contracts. The experience of writing books and realizing their potential audiences and impact, set me on a path, which has been rewarding in every sense of the term. My wife, Jeanette Esposito, has been the most important influence as well as the desire to build bridges of understanding between the Muslim world and the West.

"My writing process has varied a bit, but generally my pattern has been to rise very early, get a good run in, then write and edit for much of the day when my schedule permits. On days when I have other commitments, the ability to write very early in the daya allows me to do a good deal of writing before I leave the house.

"Among my favorite books are my two post 9/11 books, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, and What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Unholy War enabled me to place 9/11 and global terrorism within a broader context. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam provided an opportunity to address the many questions about Islam and Muslims I received from the media, government officials, and general audiences inaq&a format. Islam: The Straight Path and The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? have had long 'careers,' going through several editions/revisions and being used by very diverse audiences. The Oxford History of Islam has enjoyed great success because of both its text and rich array of illustrations.

"I want people to know about the richness and diversity of Islam (as a religion and civilization), and Muslim cultures and to appreciate that there is a Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition. I want Muslims to better understand their shared historic past and current relationships and challenges.

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Directory of American Scholars, 10th edition, Gale (Detroit, MI), 2001.

PERIODICALS

AB Bookman's Weekly, June 21, 1982, review of Women in Muslim Family Law, p. 4835.

American-Arab Affairs, summer, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 124.

American Historical Review, October, 1981, review of Islam and Development: Religion and Sociopolitical Change, p. 894; October, 1986, Charles J. Adams, review of Islam and Politics, p. 969.

American Libraries, May, 1996, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 65.

American Political Science Review, March, 1986, review of Islam and Politics, p. 347; March, 1989, Clarke E. Cochran, review of Islam in Asia: Religion, Politics, and Society, p. 255; March, 1999, Louis J. Cantori, review of Political Islam: Revolution: Radicalism, or Reform?, p. 220.

American Reference Books Annual, 1996, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 628.

Arab Studies Quarterly, summer, 1993, Antony T. Sullivan, review of The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, p. 130; spring, 1999, Charles E. Butterworth, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 100; fall, 1999, Antony T. Sullivan, review of Political Islam, p. 109.

Asian Affairs, February, 1989, Anthony Hyman, review of Islam in Asia, p. 77; October, 1993, Ivor Lucas, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 328; February 2001, Peter Clark, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 70.

Australian Journal of Political Science, July, 1997, Adam Tarock, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 314; July, 1998, Robert Springborg, review of Political Islam, p. 307.

Best Sellers, February, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 426.

Booklist, September 15, 1988, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 102; May 1, 1995, Sandy Whiteley, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 1588.

Bookwatch, November, 1991, review of Islam and Politics, 3rd edition, p. 7.

Book World, March 24, 1991, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 13; October 21, 2001, review of The Islamic Threat, 3rd edition, and Islam and Democracy, p. 15.

Choice, April, 1981, review of Islam and Development, p. 1154; June, 1982, review of Women in Muslim Family Law, p. 1448; June, 1984, review of Voices of Resurgent Islam, p. 1483; March, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 1010; September, 1987, review of Islam in Asia, p. 150; April, 1989, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 1349; June, 1991, review of The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact, p. 1708; February, 1993, review of The Iranian Revolution, p. 923; March, 1993, M. Swartz, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 1174; December, 1996, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 685; June, 1998, L. J. Cantori, review of Political Islam, p. 1781; November, 1998, S. Ward, review of Islam, Gender and Social Change, p. 536; July-August, 2000, G. R. G. Hambly, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 2033; June, 2002, M. Swartz, review of The Islamic Threat, p. SF-5, S. Ward, review of Islam, Gender and Social Change, p. SF-6, G. R. G. Hambly, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. SF-14, L. J. Cantori, review of Political Islam, p. SF-23, P. L. Redditt, review of World Religions Today, p. 1786.

Christian Century, February 24, 1988, review of Islam and Politics, 2nd edition, p. 195; December 1, 1993, Harold Vogelaar, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 1214; August 16, 2000, Harold S. Vogelaar, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 841.

Christianity and Crisis, October 19, 1992, Dale L. Bishop, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 361.

Christian Science Monitor, January 5, 1993, George D. Moffett III, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 11; July 10, 1996, Judith Caesar, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 14.

Commentary, June, 2002, Patrick Clawson, "The Expert," review of Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, p. 61.

Commonweal, December 7, 1990, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 727; February 12, 1993, George Perkovich, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 21.

Contemporary Review, March, 1985, review of Voices of Resurgent Islam, p. 163.

Contemporary Sociology, September, 1988, Hamid Dabashi, "What Is to Be Done? The Enlightened Thinkers and an Islamic Renaissance," p. 599; March, 1994, Mary-Jane Deeb, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 256.

Current History, February, 1994, William F. Finan, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 92.

Digest of Middle East Studies, summer, 1993, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 15.

Economist, March 13, 1993, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 102.

Ethics & International Affairs, annual, 1999, Sohail Hashmi, review of Political Islam, p. 272.

First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, January, 1996, Bernard Lewis, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 40; January, 1997, Joshua Muravchik, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 47.

Foreign Affairs, summer, 1984, review of Voices of Resurgent Islam, p. 1263; April, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 927; February, 1993, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 180; September-October, 1996, William B. Quandt, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 154.

Guardian Weekly, March 24, 1991, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 27; April 25, 1993, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 29.

History Today, February, 1991, William Montgomery Watt, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 59.

International Affairs, July, 1993, Maria Holt, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 610; January, 2001, John Anderson, review of Religion and Global Order, p. 196.

International Journal of Middle East Studies, May, 1991, Richard C. Martin, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 238; November, 1993, John P. Entelis, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 684; August, 1997, Leonard Binder, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 427.

Journal of Asian Studies, May, 1988, Robert L. Winzeler, review of Islam in Asia, p. 323.

Journal of Church and State, spring, 1982, review of Islam and Development, p. 383; spring, 1987, Juan R. I. Cole, review of Islam and Politics, p. 342; autumn, 1988, William R. Roff, review of Islam in Asia, p. 597; summer, 1992, Raphael Israeli, review of The Iranian Revolution, p. 616; summer, 1994, Barbara R. von Schlegell, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 614; spring, 1998, Reza Afshari, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 469-470.

Journal of Democracy, October, 1997, Ibrahim A. Karawan, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 170.

Journal of Developing Areas, April, 1986, Tareq Y. Ismael, review of Islam and Politics, p. 400; spring, 1998, Michael Johnson, review of Political Islam, p. 417.

Journal of Interdisciplinary History, winter, 1992, Manochehr Dorraj, review of The Iranian Revolution, p. 569.

Journal of Law and Religion, winter-summer, 2000, Jorn Thielmann, review of Islam and Politics, p. 615-619, Harold S. Vogelaar, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 625-626.

Journal of Marriage and the Family, February, 1983, review of Women in Muslim Family Law, p. 237.

Journal of Palestine Studies, summer, 1993, Richard W. Bulliet, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 105; autumn, 1997, Lawrence Tal, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 106; summer, 1998, As'ad AbuKhalil, review of Political Islam, p. 114; summer, 2000, Michael R. Fischbach, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 116; autumn, 2001, Michael R. Fischbach, review of Makers of Contemporary Islam, p. 100.

Journal of Peace Research, August, 1994, Dieter Senghaas, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 361.

Journal of Politics, February, 1982, review of Islam and Development, p. 297.

Journal of Religion, January, 1984, review of Islam and Development, p. 133.

Journal of the American Academy of Religion, summer, 1993, Gisela Webb, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 359; March, 2000, Nayereh Tohidi, review of Islam, Gender and Social Change, p. 178.

Journal of the American Oriental Society, April-June, 1997, Ira M. Lapidus, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 390.

Journal of Third World Studies, spring, 1996, Rolin G. Mainuddin, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 233; spring, 2001, Amalendu Misra, review of Political Islam, p. 307.

Journal of Women's History, winter, 1999, Jasamin Rostam-Kolayi, review of Islam, Gender and Social Change, p. 205.

Kirkus Reviews, August 1, 1992, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 961; April 15, 2002, review of Unholy War, p. 542.

Library Journal, December, 1984, review of Islam and Politics, p. 2286; September 15, 1988, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 74; March 15, 1995, James F. DeRoche, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 62; April 15, 1996, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 42; May 1, 1998, James F. DeRoche, review of Islam: The Straight Path, 3rd edition, p. 103; October 1, 1998, review of Islam: The Straight Path, 3rd edition, p. 61; November 15, 1999, Michael W. Ellis, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 74; February 15, 2001, Nader Entessar, review of Iran at the Crossroads, p. 186; November 15, 2001, Martha Cornog, Elizabeth J. Plantz, reviews of The Oxford History of Islam, The Islamic Threat, 3rd edition, and Islam: The Straight Path, 3rd edition, p. 82; May 1, 2002, Nader Entessar, review of Unholy War, p. 119.

London Review of Books, August 1, 1996, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 26.

Middle East, December, 1992, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 41.

Middle Eastern Studies, July, 1999, Gabriel Warburg, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 178.

Middle East Journal, summer, 1981, review of Islam and Development, p. 417; spring, 1983, review of Women in Muslim Family Law, p. 298; summer, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 428; summer, 1989, Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 542; summer, 1991, John C. Campbell, review of The Iranian Revolution, p. 504; spring, 1992, review of Islam and Politics, p. 341; autumn, 1995, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 692; summer, 1997, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 461; winter, 1998, review of Political Islam, p. 141; summer, 2001, Henry Munson, review of Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, p. 520, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 527; winter, 2002, Linda S. Walbridge, review of Makers of Contemporary Islam, p. 174.

Middle East Policy, April, 1992, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 145; fall, 1992, Grace Halsell, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 145; January, 1998, Mahmood Monshipouri, review of Political Islam, p. 198; April, 1998, review of Political Islam: Revolution, p. 198; October, 2000, Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 197; December, 2001, Mahmood Monshipouri, review of Iran at the Crossroads, p. 154.

Muslim World, January, 1990, Leila Fawaz, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 53; April, 1993, Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 192; April, 1998, Cari Salisbury, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 197.

New Statesman & Society, April 9, 1993, Stephen Howe, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 56.

Newsweek, February 18, 1991, review of Islam: The Straight Path, expanded edition, p. 62.

New York Law Journal, June 7, 2002, Edward A. Purcell, Jr., review of Unholy War, p. 2.

New York Times Book Review, December 13, 1992, Nikki R. Keddie, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 7.

Orbis, spring, 1993, Daniel Pipes, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 313.

Pacific Affairs, summer, 1988, Judith Nagata, review of Islam in Asia, p. 317.

Parameters: U.S. Army War College Quarterly, summer, 1997, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 137.

Perspective, November, 1981, review of Islam and Development, p. 164; March, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 42.

Perspectives on Political Science, summer, 1993, review of The Iranian Revolution, p. 138; winter, 1998, Glenn E. Perry, review of Political Islam: Revolution, p. 47.

Political Science Quarterly, spring, 1993, Kiren Aziz Chaudhry, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 170; fall, 1997, Stephen Pelletiere, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 516.

Publishers Weekly, July 22, 1988, Penny Kaganoff, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 53; November 8, 1999, review of The Oxford History of Islam, p. 62; April 29, 2002, review of Unholy War, p. 53.

Reference & Research Book News, August, 2001, review of Iran at the Crossroads, p. 41.

Religious Studies Review, July, 1981, review of Islam and Development, p. 269; April, 1984, review of Women in Muslim Family Law, p. 193; July, 1984, review of Voices of Resurgent Islam, p. 307; July, 1985, review of Islam and Politics, p. 313; October, 1990, review of Islam: The Straight Path, p. 363.

Review of Politics, winter, 1997, Mahmood Monshipouri, review of Islam and Democracy, p. 197.

Studies in Comparative International Development, summer, 1999, Jillian Schwedler, review of Political Islam: Revolution, p. 70.

Times Educational Supplement, July 9, 1993, review of The Islamic Threat, p. 24.

Times Higher Education Supplement, September 15, 1995, Shabbir Akhtar, review of The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, p. 26.

Times Literary Supplement, December 2, 1988, review of Islam and Politics, p. 1353.

University Press Book News, December, 1991, review of Islam and Politics, 3rd edition, p. 5.

Village Voice Literary Supplement, June, 1991, review of Islam: The Straight Path, expanded edition, p. 17.

Wall Street Journal, October 30, 1992, Daniel Pipes, review of The Islamic Threat, p. A11; August 14, 2000, Eric Ormsby, "Bookshelf: The Inner and Outer Life of a World Religion," p. A16.

Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, August, 2002, Muqtedar Khan, review of Unholy War, p. 104.

ONLINE

About.com: Agnosticism, Atheism,http://atheism.about.com/ (August 7, 2002), review of Unholy War.

Danny Yee's Book Reviews Online,http://dannyreviews.com/ (September 2, 2000), Danny Yee, review of Islam: The Straight Path.

Islamic Bookstore.com,http://islamicbookstore.com/ (August 7, 2002), review of The Oxford History of Islam.