Ritter, Hermann , German violist, inventor, teacher, writer on music, and composer; b. Wismar, Sept. 16, 1849; d. Würzburg, Jan. 22, 1926. He studied at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin, and attended courses at the Univ. of Heidelberg. Turning his attention to musical instruments, he began a series of experiments for the purpose of improving the muffled tone of the ordinary viola. Profiting by some practical hints in A. Bagatella’s book Regole per la costruzione di violini (Padua, 1786), he constructed a slightly larger model possessed of better resonance and a more brilliant tone. Exhibiting this new “viola alta” in 1876, he attracted the attention of Wagner, who invited his cooperation for the Bayreuth Festival. After that engagement he made successful tours of all Europe as a viola virtuoso, and from 1879 was a prof. of viola and music history at the Musikschule in Würzburg. In 1905 he founded the “Ritterquartett” (violin, W. Schulze-Prisca; viola alta, Ritter; viola tenore, E. Cahnbley; viola bassa, H. Knöchel). He publ. numerous compositions and transcriptions for viola and piano, and Elementartechnik der Viola alta.
Die Geschichte der Viola alta und die Grundsätze ihres Baues (Leipzig, 1876; 2nd ed., 1877; reprinted, Wiesbaden, 1969); Repetitorium der Musikgeschichte (1880); Aus der Harmonielehre meines Lebens (1883); Elementartheorie der Musik (1885); Ästhetik der Tonkunst (1886); Studien und Skizzen aus Musik- und Kulturgeschichte, sowie Musikästhetik (Dresden, 1892); Katechismus der Musikästhetik (2nd ed., 1894); Katechismus der Musikinstrumente (1894); Volksgesang in alter und neuer Zeit (1896); Schubert (1896); Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (1897); Die fünfsaitige Geige und die Weiterentwicklung der Streichinstrumente (1898); Allgemeine illustrierte Encyklopadie der Musikgeschichte (6 vols., 1901–02).
G. Adema, H. R. und seine Viola alta (Würzburg, 1881; 2nd ed., 1894).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire
"Ritter, Hermann." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ritter-hermann
"Ritter, Hermann." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ritter-hermann
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.