Sartre, Jean-Paul 1905–1980

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Sartre, Jean-Paul 1905–1980

(Jacques Guillemin)

PERSONAL: Born June 21, 1905, in Paris, France; died of a lung ailment, April 15, 1980, in Paris, France; son of Jean-Baptiste (a naval officer) and Anne-Marie (Schweitzer) Sartre; children: Arlette el Kaim-Sartre (adopted). Education: Attended Lycée Louis-le-Grand; École Normale Superieure, agrege de philosophie, 1930; further study in Egypt, Italy, Greece, and in Germany under Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. Politics: Communist, but not party member. Religion: Atheist.

CAREER: Philosopher and author of novels, plays, screenplays, biographies, and literary and political criticism. Professor of philosophy at Lycée le Havre, 1931–32 and 1934–36, Institut Français, Berlin, Germany, 1933–34, Lycée de Laon, 1936–37, Lycée Pasteur, 1937–39, and Lycée Condorcet, 1941–44. Les Temps modernes, 1944, founder and editor, beginning 1945. Lecturer at various institutions in United States, including Harvard, Columbia, Yale, and Princeton universities, and in Europe, the USSR, and China. Military service: Meteorological Corps, 1929–31; French Army, 1939–40; prisoner of war in Germany for nine months, 1940–41. Served in resistance movement, 1941–44, wrote for its underground newspapers, Combat and Les Lettres Françaises. Cofounder, French Rally of Revolutionary Democrats.

MEMBER: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Modern Language Association of America (honorary fellow).

AWARDS, HONORS: Roman populiste prize, 1940, for Le mur; French Legion d'honneur, 1945 (refused); New York Drama Critics Award for best foreign play of the season, 1947, for No Exit; French Grand Novel Prize, 1950, for La Nausée; Omegna prize (Italy), 1960, for total body of work; Nobel Prize for Literature, 1964 (refused); honorary doctorate from Hebrew University, 1976.



L'imagination, Librairie Felix Alcan, 1936, French and European Publications, 1970, translation by Forrest Williams published as Imagination: A Psychological Critique, University of Michigan Press (Ann Arbor, MI), 1962.

Esquisse d'une theorie des emotions, Hermann, 1939, translation by Bernard Frechtman published as The Emotions: Outline of a Theory, Philosophical Library, 1948, translation by Philip Mairet published as Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions, Methuen (London, England), 1962.

L'imaginaire: psychologie phenomenologique de l'imagination, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1940, translation published as The Psychology of Imagination, Philosophical Library, 1948, translated by Jonathan Webber as The Imaginary: A Phenomenological Psychology of the Imagination, Routledge (New York, NY), 2003.

L'etre et le néant: essai d'ontologie phenomenologique, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1943, translation by Hazel E. Barnes published as Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, Philosophical Library, 1956, reprinted, Regnery (Washington, DC), 1996, abridged edition, Citadel, 1964, portions published as The Wisdom of Jean-Paul Sartre, Philosophical Library, 1968.

L'existentialisme est un humanisme, Nagel, 1946, translation by Bernard Frechtman published as Existentialism (also see below), Philosophical Library, 1947, translation by Philip Mairet published as Existentialism and Humanism, Methuen (London, England), 1948.

Existentialism and Human Emotions (selections from Existentialism and Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology), Philosophical Library, 1957.

Transcendence of the Ego: An Existentialist Theory of Consciousness, translation by Forrest Williams and Robert Kirkpatrick, Noonday, 1957, original French edition published as La transcendance de l'ego: Esquisse d'une description phenomenologique, J. Vrin, 1965.

Critique de la raison dialectique: precede de question de methode, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1960, translation by Alan Sheridan-Smith published as Critique of Dialectical Reason: Theory of Practical Ensembles, Humanities, 1976.

(With others) Marxisme et existentialisme, Plon (Paris, France), 1962, translation by John Matthews published as Between Existentialism and Marxism, NLB, 1974.

Choix de textes, edited by J. Sebille, Nathan, 1962, 2nd edition, 1966.

Essays in Aesthetics, selected and translated by Wade Baskin, Philosophical Library, 1963.

Search for a Method, translation by Hazel Barnes, Knopf (New York, NY), 1963, published as The Problem of Method, Methuen (London, England), 1964, original French edition published as Question de methode, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1967.

The Philosophy of Existentialism, edited by Wade Baskin, Philosophical Library, 1965.

The Philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre (translated excerpts), edited by Robert Denoon Cummings, Random House (New York, NY), 1965.

Of Human Freedom, edited by Wade Baskin, Philosophical Library, 1967.

Essays in Existentialism, selected and edited with a foreword by Wade Baskin, Citadel, 1967.

Textes choisis, edited by Marc Beigbeder and Gerard Deledalle, Bordes, 1968.

Verite et existence, edited by Arlette el Kaim-Sartre, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1990.


La nausée, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1938, translation by Lloyd Alexander published as Nausea, New Directions (New York, NY), 1949, published as The Diary of Antoine Requentin, J. Lehmann, 1949, new edition with illustrations by Walter Spitzer, Lidis, 1964, new translation by Robert Baldick, Penguin, 1965.

Le mur, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1939, with an introduction and notes by Walter Redferm, Bristol Classics Press (London, England), 1997, translation published as The Wall, and Other Stories, preface by Jean-Louis Curtis, New Directions (New York, NY), 1948.

Les chemins de la liberte, Volume 1: L'age de raison, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1945, new edition with illustrations by Walter Spitzer, Lidis, 1965, Volume 2: Le Sursis, Gallimard, 1945, Volume 3: La mort dans l'ame, Gallimard, 1949, French and European Publications, 1972, translation published as The Roads of Freedom, Volume 1: The Age of Reason, translation by Eric Sutton, Knopf (New York, NY), 1947, new edition with introduction by Henri Peyre, Bantam (New York, NY), 1968, Volume 2: The Reprieve, translation by Eric Sutton, Knopf, 1947, Volume 3: Iron in the Soul, translation by Gerard Hopkins, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1950, translation by Hopkins published as Troubled Sleep, Knopf, 1951.

Intimacy, and Other Stories, translation by Lloyd Alexander, Berkley Publishing, 1956.


Les mouches (also see below; produced in Paris, France, 1942; translation by Stuart Gilbert produced as The Flies in New York, NY, 1947), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1943, new edition edited by F.C. St. Aubyn and Robert G. Marshall, Harper (New York, NY), 1963.

Huis-clos (also see below; produced in Paris, France, 1944; translation by Marjorie Gabain and Joan Swinstead produced as The Vicious Circle in Lon-don, England, 1946; translation by Paul Bowles produced as No Exit on Broadway, 1946), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1945, new edition edited by Jacques Hardre and George B. Daniel, Appleton (New York, NY), 1962.

The Flies (also see below) [and] In Camera, translation by Gilbert, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1946, published with No Exit, Knopf (New York, NY), 1947, original French edition published as Huis-clos [and] Les mouches, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1964.

Morts sans sepulture (also see below; produced with La putain respectueuse in Sweden, 1946; produced in Paris, France, 1946; translation produced as Men without Shadows on London's West End, 1947; translation produced as The Victors in New York, NY, 1948), Marguerat, 1946.

La putain respectueuse (also see below; produced with Morts sans sepulture in Sweden, 1946; produced in Paris, France, 1946), Nagel, 1946, translation published as The Respectful Prostitute (also see below; produced in London, England, 1948; produced on Broadway, 1948), Twice a Year Press, 1948.

Theatre I (contains Les mouches, Huis-clos, Morts sans sepulture, and La putain respectueuse), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1947.

Les jeux sont faits (screenplay; produced by Gibe-Pathe Films, 1947), Nagel, 1947, new edition edited by Mary Elizabeth Storer, Appleton (New York, NY), 1952, translation by Louise Varese published as The Chips Are Down, Lear, 1948.

Les mains sales (also see below; produced in Paris, France, 1948; translation by Kitty Black produced as Crime Passionnel on London's West End, 1948, and adapted by Daniel Taradash and produced as The Red Gloves in New York, NY, 1948), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1948, published as Les mains sales: Piece en sept tableaux, edited by Geoffrey Brereton, Methuen (London, England), 1963, new edition with analysis and notes by Gaston Meyer, Bordas, 1971.

L'engrenage (screenplay), Nagel, 1948, translation by Mervyn Savill published as In the Mesh, A. Dakers, 1954.

Three Plays (contains The Victors, Dirty Hands [translation of Les mains sales], and The Respectable Prostitute), translation by Lionel Abel, Knopf (New York, NY), 1949.

Three Plays: Crime Passionnel, Men without Shadows, [and] The Respectable Prostitute, translation by Kitty Black, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1949.

Le diable et le bon dieu (produced in Paris, France, 1951), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1951, translation by Kitty Black published as Lucifer and the Lord (also see below), Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1953, published as The Devil and the Good Lord, and Two Other Plays, Knopf (New York, NY), 1960.

(Adapter) Alexandre Dumas, Kean (also see below; produced in Paris, France, 1953), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1954, translation by Kitty Black published as Kean, or Disorder and Genius, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1954, Vintage (New York, NY), 1960.

No Exit, and Three Other Plays (contains No Exit, The Flies, Dirty Hands, and The Respectful Prostitute), Random House (New York, NY), 1955.

Nekrassov (also see below; produced in Paris, France, 1955), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1956, translation by Sylvia and George Leeson published as Nekrassov (produced in London, England, 1957), Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1956, French and European Publications, 1973.

Les sequestres d'Altona (also see below; produced in Paris, France, 1959), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1960, new edition edited and with an introduction by Philip Thody, University of London Press (London, England), 1965, translation by S. Leeson and G. Leeson published as Loser Wins, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1960, published as The Condemned of Altona (also see below; produced on Broadway, 1966), Knopf (New York, NY), 1961.

Crime Passionnel: A Play, translation by Kitty Black, Methuen (London, England), 1961.

Theatre (contains Les mouches, Huis-clos, Morts sans sepulture, La putain respectueuse, Les mains sales, Le diable et le bon dieu, Kean, Nekrassov, and Les sequestres d'Altona), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1962.

Bariona, Anjou-Copies, 1962, 2nd edition, E. Marescot, 1967.

The Condemned of Altona, Men without Shadows, [and] The Flies, Penguin, 1962.

Orphee noir (first published in Anthologie de la nouvelle poesie negre et malgache de langue françeaise, Presses Universitaires de France, 1948), translation by S.W. Allen published as Black Orpheus, University Place Book Shop, c. 1963.

La putain respectueuse, piece en un acte et deux tableaux: suivi de Morts sans sepulture, piece en deux actes et quatre tableax, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1963.

The Respectable Prostitute [and] Lucifer and the Lord, translation by Kitty Black, Penguin, 1965.

(Adapter) Euripides, Les troyennes (produced in Paris, France, 1965), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1966, translation by Ronald Duncan published as The Trojan Women (also see below), Knopf (New York, NY), 1967.

Three Plays (contains Kean, or Disorder and Genius, Nekrassov, and The Trojan Women), Penguin, 1969.

Five Plays (contains No Exit, The Flies, Dirty Hands, The Respectful Prostitute, and The Condemned of Altona), Franklin Library, 1978.

Also author of screenplays Typhus, 1944, and Les sorcieres de Salem (adapted from Arthur Miller's The Crucible); author of unpublished play All the Treasures of the Earth.


Réflexions sur la question juive, P. Morihien, 1946, translation by George J. Becker published as Anti-Semite and Jew, Schocken (New York, NY), 1948, reprinted, 1995, translation by Erik de Mauney published as Portrait of the Anti-Semite, Secker & Warburg (London, England), 1948.

Baudelaire, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1947, translation by Martin Turnell published as Baudelaire, Horizon (London, England), 1949, New Directions (New York, NY), 1950.

Situations I, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1947, published as Critiques litteraires, 1975.

Situations II, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1948.

Qu'est-ce que le litterature? (first published in Situations II), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1949, translation by Bernard Frechtman published as What Is Literature?, Philosophical Library, 1949, published as Literature and Existentialism, Citadel, 1962.

Situations III, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1949.

(With David Rousset and Gerard Rosenthal) Entretiens sur la politique, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1949.

Saint Genet, comedien et martyr, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1952, translation by Bernard Frechtman published as Saint Genet: Actor and Martyr, Braziller (New York, NY), 1963.

Literary and Philosophical Essays (excerpts from Situations I and III), translation by Annette Michelson, Criterion, 1955.

Literary Essays (excerpts from Situations I and III), translation by Michelson, Philosophical Library, 1957.

Sartre on Cuba, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1961.

Situations IV: Portraits, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1964, translation by Benita Eisler published as Situations, Braziller (New York, NY), 1965.

Situations V: Colonialisme et neo-colonialisme, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1964, translation published as Colonialism and Neocolonialism, Routledge (New York, NY), 2001.

Les communistes et la paix (first published in Situations VI), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1964, translation by Martha H.Fletcher and John R. Kleinschmidt (bound with "A Reply to Claude Lefort" translated by Philip R. Berk) published as The Communists and Peace, Braziller (New York, NY), 1968.

Situations VI: Problemes du Marxisme, Part I, Gallimard, (Paris, France) 1966.

(Contributor) Aimé Cesaire, Das politische Denken Lumumbas, Klaus Wagenbach, 1966.

Situations VII: Problemes du Marxisme, Part II, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1967.

On Genocide, with commentary on the International War Crimes Tribunal by Sartre's adopted daughter, Arlette el Kaim-Sartre, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1968.

The Ghost of Stalin, translation by Martha H. Fletcher and John R. Kleinschmidt, Braziller (New York, NY), 1968, translation by Irene Clephane published as The Spectre of Stalin, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1969.

Les communistes ont peur de la revolution, J. Didier (Paris, France), 1969.

(With Vladimir Dedijer) War Crimes in Vietnam, Ber-trand Russell Peace Foundation, 1971.

L'idiot de la famille, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1971, translation by Carol Cosman published as The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert, 1821–1857, three volumes, University of Chicago Press, 1981–89.

Situations VIII: autour de 1968, French and European Publications, 1972.

Situations IX: melanges, French and European Publications, 1972.

Situations X: politique et autobiographie, French and European Publications, 1976, translation by Paul Auster and Lydia Davis published as Life/Situations: Essays Written and Spoken, Pantheon (New York, NY), 1977.


Sartre par lui-meme, edited by Francis Jeanson, Seuil (Paris, France), 1959, translation by Richard Seaver published as Sartre by Himself, Outback Press, 1978.

(Author of text) Andre Masson, Vingt-deux dessins sur le theme du desir, F. Mourtot, 1961.

Les mots (autobiography), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1963, translation by Bernard Frechtman published as The Words, Braziller (New York, NY), 1964, translation by Clephane published as Words, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1964.

(Editor with Bertrand Russell) Das Vietnam Tribunal, Rowohlt, 1970.

Gott ohne Gott (contains Bariona and a dialogue with Sartre), edited by Gotthold Hasenhuttl, Graz (Austria), 1972.

Un theatre de situations, compiled and edited by Michel Contat and Michel Rybalka, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1973, translation by Frank Jellinck published as Sartre on Theater, Pantheon (New York, NY), 1976.

Oeuvres romanesques, edited by Contat and Rybalka, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1981.

Cahiers pour une morale, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1983.

Carnets de la drole de guerre, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1983, new edition, 1995.

(With Simone de Beauvoir) Lettres au Castor et a quelques autres, Volume 1: 1926–1939, translated by Lee Fahnestock and Norman MacAfee as Witness to My Life: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1926–1939, Scribner (New York, NY), 1992, Volume 2: 1940–1963, translated by Fahnestock and MacAfee as Quiet Moments in a War: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1940–1963, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1993.

Le scenario Freud, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1984, translation by Quintin Hoare published as The Freud Scenario, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1985.

The War Diaries of Jean-Paul Sartre, Random House (New York, NY), 1985.

Notes from a Phony War, Gallimard (Paris, France), 1995.

(With Benny Levy) Hope Now: The 1980 Interviews, translated by Adrian van den Hoven, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1996.

Existential Psychoanalysis, Regnery (Washington, DC), 1997.

Jean-Paul Sartre: Basic Writings, Routledge (New York, NY), 2000.

Sartre and Camus: A Historic Confrontation, edited by David A. Sprintzen and Adrian van den Hoven, Humanity Books (Amherst, NY), 2004.

Contributor to numerous books, including L'Affaire Henri Martin (title means "The Henry Martin Affair"), Gallimard (Paris, France), 1953; and to anthologies and periodicals. Editor of La Cause du peuple, beginning 1970, Tout!, beginning 1970, and Revolution!, beginning 1971.

ADAPTATIONS: The Chips Are Down, a film based on Sartre's screenplay Le jeux sont faits, was produced by Lopert, 1949; Les mains sales, a film based on Sartre's play of the same title, was produced by Rivers Films, 1951 and later released in the United States as Dirty Hands; La putain respectueuse, a film based on Sartre's play of the same title, was produced by Agiman Films and Artes Films, 1952; The Respectable Prostitute, a film based on Sartre's play La putain respectueuse, was produced by Gala, 1955; Les orgueilleux, a film based on Sartre's original screenplay Typhus, was produced by Jean Productions, 1953, and was released in the United States as The Proud and the Beautiful by Kingsley, 1956; Huis-clos, a film based on Sartre's play of the same title, was produced by Jacqueline Audry, 1954; Kean, Genio e Sregolatezza, a film based on an Alexandré Dumas play adapted by Sartre, was produced by Lux Films, 1957; Les sequestres d'Altona, a film based on Sartre's play of the same title, was produced by Titanus Films, 1963 and released in the United States as The Condemned of Altona by Twentieth Century-Fox, 1963; a television production based on Huis-clos was broadcast on O.R.T.F. (French Radio-Television) in 1965; Le mur, a film based on Sartre's short story of the same title, was produced by Niepce Films, 1967; The Roads to Freedom, a thirteen-week television serial based on Sartre's novels, The Age of Reason, The Reprieve, and Troubled Sleep was produced by the British Broadcasting Corp., 1970.

SIDELIGHTS: Jean-Paul Sartre was one of the major intellectual figures of the twentieth century, doubtless the greatest of his immediate generation in France. In the words of Sartrean scholars Michel Contat and Michel Rybalka in The Writings of Jean-Paul Sartre, he was "uncontestably the most outstanding philosopher and writer" of his age. Henri Peyre, in his preface to The Condemned of Altona, called Sartre "the most powerful intellect at work … in the literature of Western Europe," the "Picasso of literature." Since his death in 1980, Sartre's reputation has not waned, and with perspective it is clear that he represented his age much as, in different ways, Voltaire (1694–1778), Victor Hugo (1802–1885), and André Gide (1869–1951) represented theirs. "To understand Jean-Paul Sartre," wrote Iris Murdoch in Sartre: Romantic Rationalist, "is to understand something important about the present time."

Sartre was the chief proponent of French existentialism, a philosophic school—influenced by Sören Kierkegaard and German philosophers—that developed around the close of the World War II. Existentialism stresses the primacy of the thinking person and of concrete individual experience as the source of knowledge; this philosophy also emphasized the anguish and solitude inherent in the making of choices.

Sartre's literary and philosophic careers are inextricably bound together, and are best understood in relation to one another and to their biographic context. An only child, Sartre decided at an early age to be a writer. According to The Words, the autobiography of his youth, this decision was made in conscious opposition to the wishes of his grandfather, Charles Schweitzer (who, after the death of Sartre's father, raised the boy with the help of Sartre's grandmother). Schweitzer, a domineering Protestant who was nevertheless very fond of his grandson and extremely indulgent with him, appeared to young Sartre as insincere, a consummate charlatan. Schweitzer preached the serious values of the bourgeoisie and tried to denigrate a career in letters as precarious, unsuitable for stable middle-class people. In reaction, Sartre proposed to make writing serious, to adopt it as the center of his life and values. He also chose it as a kind of self-justification in a world where a child was not taken seriously. "By writing I was existing. I was escaping from the grown-ups," he wrote in The Words.

When his mother remarried, Sartre moved from Paris to La Rochelle with her and his stepfather, a solemn professional man with whom he felt little in common. All the same, young Sartre followed the path of a professional, finishing his lycée studies in Paris and completing university work at the École Normale Superieure. There he met feminist intellectual Simone de Beauvoir, who was to be a lifelong companion, though by no means his only love interest.

As a student Sartre became interested in philosophy, pursuing it through the agregation—the highest French degree preparing for a teaching career. Sartre was steeped in the Cartesian rationalist tradition whereby the subject's existence is proven by his thought, although eventually he largely departed from this philosophy. The topic of his thesis, the imagination, shows how his philosophic concerns supported his early interest in creative writing. Other of his treatises of the 1930s concern the emotions and what Sartre called the transcendence of the ego—or the nature of the self—which, he argued, is created by the individual instead of being a given. At the same time that he was pursuing these investigations on the imagination, Sartre became acquainted with phenomenology, a branch of philosophy associated with such German scholars as Edmund Husserl, with whom Sartre studied for a year in Berlin.

Throughout the 1930s Sartre's philosophic and literary pursuits supported each other and developed along parallel lines. At the beginning of the decade he began work on a fictional piece first called "A Pamphlet on Contingency"—contingency being lack of foundation—which developed into his first novel, Nausea. It illustrates what de Beauvoir dubbed his "opposition aesthetics"—his desire to use literature as a critical tool. The novel's title indicates the hero's reaction toward existence: when he discovers that life is absurd, he feels repulsed. Nothing, it would seem, can save him, except the discovery that he might be able to write a novel that would have internal necessity and be a rival to life; he proposes to save himself through an act of aesthetic creation. Sartre said in The Words: "At the age of thirty, I executed the masterstroke of writing in Nausea—quite sincerely, believe me—about the bitter unjustified existence of my fellow men and of exonerating my own."

Nausea was received with praise and had considerable success. In Esprit, reviewer Armand Robin called Nausea "undoubtedly one of the distinctive works of our time." Later, in Sartre: A Philosophic Study, Anthony Richards Manser called it "that rare thing: a genuinely philosophic novel."

Sartre revealed himself to be a master psychologist in his next fictional work, the short story collection The Wall. Particularly impressive is the title story, which recounts an episode from the Spanish Civil War, and the final one, "The Childhood of a Leader," which, while autobiographical to a considerable degree, has as its main plot thread the making of a Fascist. These stories reveal the author's command of dialogue and metaphor and illustrate exceptionally interesting ideas about human relationships, sexuality, insanity, childhood development, and the meaning of action.

By the late 1930s Sartre was known as a promising writer but he was not yet considered an important philosopher. This assessment changed in 1943 when he produced Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, the major philosophical work of the first half of his career. While closely related to his treatises on imagination and to the views of experience he had expressed in his fiction, Being and Nothingness is not confined to these subjects. Rather, in defining being, or what is, as what appears, it explores all phenomena. The essay examines man, the being who questions being, and concludes that he is both his body occupying a place in the world—that is, an object among objects—and a subject or a consciousness reflecting on objects. Sartre contends that all consciousness is consciousness of something. Since it is basically a negating—or distinguishing—function (saying that this chair, for instance, is not this table), consciousness produces the concept of nothingness; man is the being by whom negation is introduced into an otherwise complete world. Though its influence penetrated slowly, Being and Nothingness helped assure its author's fame after 1945.

Sartre attempted to expand upon Being and Nothingness with Truth and Existence, which, although completed in 1948, did not see print until 1989. In the essay the philosopher explores the connections between ethics, truth, and ignorance, and the panorama of history, and portrays bad faith among men and women as the intentional choice to remain ignorant by abrogating hard work in favor of a reliance upon fate and destiny.

In Being and Nothingness, Sartre wrote that one of the most important characteristics of consciousness is its freedom. He soon drew explicitly the corollary that ontological freedom, in which man is "condemned to be free," as he wrote in Being and Nothingness, must entail political freedom also. That is, freedom is a goal as well as a given and must be embodied in praxis, or practical action. The very popular The Flies, which retells the Greek story of the murder of Clytemnestra by her children Orestes and Electra, emphasizes man's fundamental freedom, against which even the gods are powerless. No Exit, often anthologized and perhaps the best known of all of Sartre's works, deals with the absence of freedom when one allows oneself to exist through and for others, rather than living authentically. Sartre stated in L'Express that its famous conclusion, "Hell is other people," did not describe what had to be true concerning human relationships, but what was true when relationships with others became corrupt or twisted.

The theme of freedom may be even more elaborately treated in less-famous Sartre plays of the 1940s. Morts sans sepulture (The Victors), which shocked the sensibilities of many theatergoers because it deals with torture during the German Occupation, indicates how extreme the Sartrean view of freedom could be. The play offers the view that even under torture and threat of death, one is free to choose; that this choice cannot be evaded, nor can it be made other than in utter loneliness; and that one is responsible for all its consequences. Les mains sales (Dirty Hands) treats the difficulty of political choice, the necessity of political compromise, and the refusal to let one's freedom be alienated or appropriated by others.

Between 1945 and 1950 Sartre also published three more novels—The Age of Reason, The Reprieve, and Troubled Sleep—collectively called Roads to Freedom. These works deal with an ineffectual hero in a morally and politically indifferent France before World War II. The series illustrates what Sartre described in "What Is Literature?" as a literature of praxis: "action in history and on history … a synthesis of historical relativity and moral and metaphysical absolute." In The Reprieve Sartre carries further than any other French writer of his period the techniques of jumping from one plot thread to another, without transition, and of pursuing simultaneous plots. While making for very difficult reading, these techniques suggest collective action and thus support his portrait of what it was like to be in Europe at the time of the Munich Crisis of 1938.

After the war Sartre published many articles on literature and politics, notably the important essay "What Is Literature?" in Situations II. Here he states that all prose literature is necessarily committed to making a political and social statement and is directed to one's own contemporaries; the practice of literature, he insists, is built on freedom—the writer's and the reader's. As he put it in Situations II, literature is "the subjectivity of a society in permanent revolution."

After the war, though considerably lionized and taken by many youthful readers to be the preeminent spokesman for their generation, Sartre continued to develop intellectually and undergo changes that were to have far-reaching effects on his work. In the prewar years, he had been generally uninterested in politics. While despising fascist parties and the bourgeoisie from which they—and he—came, Sartre had not participated in political action, nor even bothered to vote, considering his fiction and philosophic texts sufficient expressions of his unfavorable views of society. Now he became thoroughly politicized, speaking out on such issues as the French presence in Indochina, which he opposed, and even participating in a leftist, but non-Communist, postwar political movement.

By the close of the 1940s, with the advent of the cold war, Sartre accepted that a non-communist leftist party was a contradiction. He returned to Karl Marx's writings, with which he had previously been only roughly familiar, and began steeping himself in Marxism to rework his positions and think against what he had previously held. Throughout the rest of his career Sartre denounced many of his previous attitudes and practiced systematic self-debate. Although he became a resolute neo-Marxist, he was never a member of the French Communist Party, but was instead often its critic and that of the former Soviet Union. However, he was always staunchly opposed to Western capitalism, NATO, and the United States.

The radicalization of his thinking seemed essential to Sartre because the fame that had overtaken him during the 1940s had the effect, or so he thought, of making him a public being; he felt that he was being appropriated by others. This threat increased his sense of alienation. He also resented what he felt would be his inevitable acceptance by the bourgeoisie; he was becoming respectable, read by the middle classes. This attitude explains why, in 1964, he refused the Nobel Prize for Literature; to him, it was a middle-class recognition that would have the effect of making him appear inoffensive.

In a 1964 Le Monde interview with Jacqueline Piatier, Sartre summarized his political changes: "I discovered abruptly that alienation, exploitation of man by man, undernourishment, relegated to the background metaphysical evil, which is a luxury." This discovery led to profound transformations in Sartre as a writer. Although he continued to regard his earlier works as well written, he also now viewed them as inauthentic because they resulted from a bourgeois decision to write, a decision based on personal rebellion and on the idolatry of words. Moreover, he came to believe that fiction could no longer serve his purpose. He even abandoned drama, although he had argued earlier that theater is an ideal means of showing characters in situations where they must commit themselves wholly to their actions and thereby create values.

While Sartre's career as a semipopular writer came to a close in 1950, several works published after that date are among his greatest. The Critique of Dialectical Reason, his second major philosophic work, is essential to the understanding of all he wrote after his radicalization and is so closely connected to certain of his other texts that whole sections were transferred from one to another. It is far from a popular work; even more than in Being and Nothingness, the vocabulary and concepts of its 750—plus pages are difficult, and the analysis is so abstruse and sometimes meandering that even professional philosophers have found some of it incomprehensible.

Intended as a synthesis of existentialist philosophy and Marxism, the Critique calls on and belongs to disciplines as various as anthropology, history, psychology, economics, and philosophy. Its aim is to give a philosophical basis to Marxism and, on that basis, to investigate further the dialectic of history and its intelligibility. Dialectical reasoning, which is opposed to the analytic method, involves the Hegelian synthesis of contraries. Sartre's thesis is that, whereas analytical reason has been the tool of the oppressive classes, dialectical reason, which offers a different understanding of history and its possibilities, is the "practical awareness of an oppressed class fighting against its oppressor," "the objective spirit of the working class," as he put it in the Critique. While still insisting on the possibility of human freedom, the treatise shows how this freedom is conditioned, alienated, made powerless by historical and social developments.

In the field of biography, Sartre published in 1947 a short volume on poet Charles Baudelaire. Using what in Being and Nothingness he called existential psychoanalysis, Sartre explains Baudelaire's character and career as an original conscious choice—the choice to remain infantile, narcissistic, dependent on his mother, a failure. In opposition to Freud, Sartre shows that the poet's choice reveals psychological freedom, not psychological determinism. The next biography, Saint Genet: Actor and Martyr, is a masterly analysis of writer Jean Genet, a convicted thief and multiple offender known for his shocking plays and novels concerned with homosexuality, anarchy, and rebellion against authority. The biography ascribes Genet's career as a thief to a conscious decision made in childhood to be what others accused him of being. To Sartre, Genet is a splendid example of a man who made himself as he wanted to be by inverting other people's values.

Some twelve years later, Sartre published his autobiography, a self-accusatory work. The title, The Words, refers to the idolatry of literature he had practiced up to about 1950. The autobiography was judged by Francis Jeanson in Sartre dans sa vie as "the most accessible, and doubtless the most successful, of all the non-philosophical works of Sartre." It demolishes "the myth of a Messiah-writer of a dechristianized bourgeoisie," according to Revue des Sciences Humaines contributor Marc Bensimon. As a study in characters (his mother, his grandfather, the Alsatian bourgeoisie from which they sprang, his father's family), it is superb. As self-analysis, it is even more outstanding. Few writers have portrayed so searchingly their early childhood and their choice of a vocation or have judged so severely the adult who grew from the child. The book was, Sartre says within its pages, the fruit of an awakening from "a long, bitter, and sweet delusion." The Words reads almost like fiction; it is brief and its style is witty, aphoristic, penetrating—classical, in a word, although its method is dialectical.

At the opposite extreme is Sartre's final biographic work, The Family Idiot, a 2,800-page analysis of Gustave Flaubert. Flaubert had long interested Sartre, both attracting him and repulsing him. Sartre wanted to explore chiefly the particular circumstances and the dialectical relationships that made Flaubert into a bourgeois who hated the bourgeoisie, a passive man incapable of pursuing an ordinary career, and, generally, a misfit and a neurotic, as well as a great writer. The investigation ranges far afield, from Flaubert's antecedents and family, to his infancy (reconstructed with the help of Sartre's dialectical method, here called progressive-regressive) and youth, to all aspects of the social and economic situation in which he matured. Sartre wished to show, he said in an interview given to Le Monde, that "everything can be communicated … that every human being is perfectly capable of being understood if the appropriate methods are used."

After 1950 Sartre published and saw into production two theatrical adaptations and three original plays, two of which are surely among his greatest. The Devil and the Good Lord, his personal favorite, is, like the volume on Genet, concerned with values, absolutely and pragmatically. An uncompromising statement of atheism, the play explores in a historical context—sixteenth-century Reformation Germany—the interdependency of good and evil and illustrates the necessity of adopting means that suit the ends. A second major play of the 1950s is the lengthy The Condemned of Altona, which concerns a German World War II veteran who has barricaded himself in his room for years. Tended only by his sister, the veteran has persuaded himself that Germany won the war. Although concerned explicitly with that conflict and its aftermath, the play was intended to refer also to the Algerian War, then in progress. The play impugns Nazi Germany and the type of men it produced—not just SS soldiers but also members of the upper bourgeoisie who found Nazism useful because it served their economic interests. More generally, it condemns capitalist Europe, whose conflicts over markets and expansion had caused two world wars.

Declaring to John Gerassi—in a 1971 New York Times Magazine interview—that "commitment is an act, not a word," Sartre expressed his political beliefs by participating in demonstrations, marches, and campaigns, although he was not well (he suffered from failing eyesight and circulatory troubles, among other ailments). Sartre took stands on literally dozens of political and social issues around the world. Such topics as decent housing in France, conscientious objection in Israel, the Vietnamese War, repression in the Congo, Basque separatism, the troubles in Northern Ireland, torture in Argentina, and the Russian invasion of Afghanistan show the range of his concerns. Denouncing as ossified the French Communist Party and all other parties intellectually dependent upon the Soviet Union, Sartre supported Maoist attempts at a new radicalization of Marxist theory and action. This political activity both increased interest in his writings and made him notorious throughout Europe.

From the beginning of his career, Sartre wanted to make people think, feel, see, and ultimately act differently. Like his earlier views, summarized in Existentialism Is a Humanism, Sartre's later morality is both a difficult and a hopeful one. People can change, he proclaimed, but they would prefer to remain in their errors (to practice injustice, for instance) or to cling to what he had called bad faith. Because of the acceleration of violence and international competition, they must change, he insisted. Since the oppressive and privileged classes will not willingly give up their privileges, these must be wrested from them by violence and revolution; then new relationships between human beings, based on reciprocity and openness instead of rivalry and secrecy, will be possible, Sartre declared.

As his health deteriorated, Sartre wrote less but gave lengthy interviews that are a sort of intellectual autobiography. He remained fascinated with himself and his career, perhaps more so than other great writers, but more surprisingly so, since he had wished to move away from the cult of the individual to the idea of the general man, "anyone at all," as he put it in The Words. He was, as Josette Pacaly declared in Sartre au miroir, "a Narcissus who does not like himself."

Twelve years after Sartre's death in 1980, his daughter authorized the publication of several collections of letters that illuminate the private life and thoughts of the philosopher. Witness to My Life: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1926–1939 relates to the early years of the unconventional Sartre-de Beau-voir love relationship, the period during which he wrote his first fictional and philosophical works and during which Sartre served as a professor of philosophy at several universities. Many ideas that the novelist-philosopher included in such novels as The Age of Reason and Being and Nothingness "were first formulated in letters written at the beginning of [World War II], when, exiled from the distractions of Paris, he profited from the enforced leisure of camp life," according to Ronald Hayman in New York Times Book Review. "Though the publication of these letters brings rather too many private parts into public view, and though they illuminate only the comparatively brief periods when Sartre and Beauvoir were separated, they enable us to see the whole partnership in a new perspective," the critic added.

The philosopher's experiences of serving as an officer attached to a French meteorological unit and, later, as a prisoner of war, are recounted through letters collected as Quiet Moments in a War: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1940–1963. "In these letters, we have in effect an intimate portrait of the precocious philosopher emerging into a kind of intellectual and spiritual maturity," explained Peter T. Connor in America. Many of the letters written to his lover from his uneventful wartime post show Sartre engaged in "deep and searching ruminations," added Connor, "staking out his philosophical position vis-a-vis Husserl and Heidegger, overcoming his 'inferiority complex vis-a-vis the far Left' and reflecting on the inner meaning that his philosophy holds for him." Enthralled by the collection, Penelope Mesic added in Chicago's Tribune Books: "It is irresistible, when reading the life of a philosopher, to compare the writer's conduct with his theories. But the foremost philosopher of freedom, in prison, comes across rather well…. In these letters we almost casually discover an exemplary life."

Seen as a whole, Sartre's career reveals numerous contradictions. A bourgeois, he hated the middle classes and wanted to chastise them; "I became a traitor and remained one," he wrote in The Words. Yet he was not a true proletarian writer. An individualist in many ways and completely opposed to regimentation, he nevertheless attacked the individualistic tradition and insisted on the importance of the collectivity; he moved from the extremely solitary position of an existentialist to concern for society above all. A writer possessed of an outstanding ear for language and other literary skills, he came to suspect literature as inauthentic and wrote a superb autobiography to denounce writing. An atheist, he often spoke with the fervor of an evangelist and repeated that man was responsible for his own errors and must mend his ways. A reformer and moralist, he led an existence that would seem to many decidedly immoral. Of such contradictions, he was of course, aware.



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