Born April 14, 1912, in Gentilly, France; died April 1, 1994, in Paris, France; married Pierrette Chaumaison, 1934; children: Annette, Francine. Education: Attended schools in Gentilly; studied lithography at the Ecole Estienne, Paris, 1926-29.
Worked as an engraver and lithographer, Paris, France, 1929-31; photographer, beginning 1930; photographic assistant to André Vigneau, Paris, 1931-33; Renault Car Company, Billancourt, Paris, industrial photographer, 1934-39. Photojournalist and magazine photographer, working for Excelsior, Point de Vue, Life, Fortune, Noir et Blanc, Paris-Match, and Vogue, 1949-52. Member, Alliance Photo Agency, later known as Adep, Paris, 1945; member, Rapho Agency, Paris, beginning 1946. Exhibitions: Solo exhibitions: Le Monde des Spectacles, La Fontaine des Quatre Saisons, Paris, 1951; Limelight Gallery, New York, 1959; Art Institute of Chicago, 1960; Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1968; International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, 1972; Galerie Municipale du Chateau d'Eau, Toulouse, France, 1974; Vieille Charite, Marseilles, France, 1974; Witkin Gallery, New York, 1974; Galerie Bardawil, Paris, 1975; La Galerie et Fils, Brussels, Belgium, 1975; Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Nantes, France Musee Reattu, Arles, France, 1975; Photo Art, Basle, Switzerland, 1976; Town Hall, Dieppe, France, 1976; Ne Bougeons Plus!, Galerie Agathe Gaillard, Paris, 1978; Witkin Gallery, New York, 1978; Musee Nicephore Niepce, Chalon-sur-Saone, France, 1978; Musee Eugene Boudin, Honfleur, France, 1979; Paris: Les Passants que Passent, Musee d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1979; Quelques Secondes d'Eternite, Galerie Municipale du Chateau d'Eau, Toulouse, 1979; Grapestake Gallery, San Francisco, CA, 1981; Gallery for Fine Photography, New Orleans, LA, 1981; Palace of Fine Arts, Beijing, China, 1983; Portrait Exhibition, Tokyo, Japan, 1983; Saint Denis, Musee Saint Denis, Paris, 1987; Kyoto Museum, Kyoto, Japan, 1987; Villa Medicis, Rome, Italy, 1988; Doisneau-Renault, Grande Halle de la Villette, Paris, 1989; La Science de Doisneau, Jardin des Plantes, Paris, 1990; Retrospective, MOMA, Oxford, England, 1992; Galerie du Chateau d'Eau, Toulouse, France, 1994; Doisneau 40/44, Centre d'Histoire de la Resistance et de la Deportation, Lyon, France, 1994; Musee Carnavalet, Paris, 1995. Selected group exhibitions: 5 French Photographers: Brassai/Cartier-Bresson/Doisneau/Izis/Ronis, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951; Great Photographs, Limelight Gallery, New York, 1954; 6 Photographes de Paris, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, 1965; (with Denis Brihat, Lucien Clergue, and Jean-Pierre Sudre), L'Oeil Objectif, Musee Cantini, Marseilles, France, 1968; Boubat/Brassai/Cartier-Bresson/Doisneau/Izis/Ronis, French Embassy, Moscow, U.S.S.R., 1972; 6 Photographesen Quete de Banlieue, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1977; The Imaginary Photo Museum, Kunsthalle, Cologne, Germany, 1980; Counterparts: Form and Emotion in Photographs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (also traveled to the Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, OH; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, TX; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Corcoran Gallery, Washington, DC), 1982; Subjektive Fotografie: Images of the 50s, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (also traveled to the University of Houston, Houston, TX; Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany; Vasterbottens Museum, Umea; Kulturhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; Saarland Museum, Saarbrucken, Germany; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium), 1984; The Animal in Photography, 1843-1985, The Photographers' Gallery, London, 1986. Collections: Musee d'Art Moderne, Paris; Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris; Musee Nicephore Niepce, Chalon-sur-Saone, France; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Museum of Modern Art, New York; International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York; New Orleans Museum of Art; Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Tucson; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Military service: Served in the French Army Infantry, 1939-40, and with the French Resistance, 1940-45.
Kodak Prize, 1947; Niepce Prize, 1956; Grand Prix National de la Photographie, Paris, 1983; chevalier, Legion d'Honneur, France, 1984.
Le Banlieue de Paris, with text by Blaise Cendrars, Edition Pierre Sechers (Paris, France), 1949.
Sortileges de Paris, with text by Francois Cali, Edition Arthaud (Paris, France), 1952.
Les parisiens tels qu'ils sont, with text by Robert Giraud and Michel Ragon, Edition Robert Delpire (Paris, France), 1954.
Instantanées de Paris, Edition Arthaud (Paris, France), 1955.
1,2,3,4,5—Compter en s'amusant, Edition la Guilde Livre de Lausanne (Lausanne, Switzerland), 1955.
Paris Parade, (London, England), 1956.
Pour que Paris soit, with text by Elsa Triolet, Edition du Cercle d'Art (Paris, France), 1956.
Gosses de Paris, with text by Jean Donques, Edition Jeheber (Paris, France), 1956.
Nicolas Schoefer, [Neuchatel, Switzerland], 1963.
Marius le Forestier, with text by Jean Dominique Halevy, [Paris, France], 1964.
Le royaume d'argot, with text by Robert Giraud, [Paris, France], 1965.
Epouvantables Epouvantails, [Paris, France], 1965.
Catherine la danseuse, with text by Michele Manceaux, F. Nathan (Paris, France), 1966.
Temoins de la vie quotidienne, with text by Roger Lecotte and Jacques Dubois, [Paris, France], 1971.
My Paris, with text by Maurice Chevalier, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1972.
Le Paris de Robert Doisneau et Max-Pol Fouchet, Les Editeurs Francais Reunis (Paris, France), 1974.
Manuel de St.-Germain des Pres, with text by Boris Vian, [Paris, France], 1974.
La Loire, Denoel (Paris, France), 1978.
Trois secondes d'eternite, Edition Contrejour (Paris, France), 1979, published as Robert Doisneau: Three Seconds of Eternity, teNeues Publishing (New York, NY), 1979.
Doisneau, [New York, NY], 1979.
L'Enfant et la Colombe, with text by James Sage, Editions Le Chene (Paris, France), 1979.
Robert Doisneau, Edition Belfond (Paris, France), 1980.
Le mal de Paris, with text by Clement Lepidis, Edition Arthaud (Paris, France), 1980.
Passages et galeries du 19e siecle, with text by Bernard Delvaille, A.C.E. (Paris, France), 1981.
Ballade pour violoncello et chambre noir, with text by Maurice Baquet, Editions Herscher (Paris, France), 1981.
Robert Doisneau, edited by Jean-Francois Chevrier, [Paris, France], 1983.
Pour saluer Cendrars, with text by Jerome Camilly, 1987.
A l'imparfait de l'objectif: souvenirs et portraits, P. Belfond (Paris, France), 1989.
Les Grandes Vacances, with text by Daniel Pennac, [Paris, France], 1990.
Portrait de Saint-Denis, Calmann-Levy (Paris, France), 1992.
Rue Jacques Prevert, Edition Hoebeke (Paris, France), 1992.
(With Charbonnier and Ronis) Les enfants de germinal, with text by Cavanna, Edition Hoebeke (Paris, France), 1993.
La vie de famille, with text by Daniel Pennac, [Paris, France], 1993.
Doisneau 40/44, with text by Pascal Ory, Edition Hoebeke (Paris, France), 1994.
Doisneau Paris, edited by Brigette Ollier, Gingko Press (Santa Rosa, CA), 1994.
La vie d'un photographe, Robert Doisneau, Edition Hoebeke (Paris, France), 1995.
J'attends tourjours le printemps: lettres a MauriceBaquet, Actes Sud (Arles, France), 1996.
Tous les jours dimanche, text by Claude Villers, Hors Collection (Paris, France), 2001.
Doisneau Portfolio, Taschen America (Los Angeles, CA), 2004.
French photographer Robert Doisneau created an indelible image of an ever-changing Paris over the six decades of his career. As Bruce Wallace commented in Maclean's, "Doisneau helped etch the impression of the French capital as a romantic, if occasionally bittersweet, city that never sleeps. Doisneau's Paris became the French capital of the imagination, a black-and-white portfolio of bicycles and bistros, where lovers snatch kisses in front of city hall and gangs of children with scuffed knees and thick socks playfully show off their poses at curbside." Yet Doisneau's Paris was hardly that of the usual tourist sites. Instead, his vision produced a Paris of the quotidian, and he photographed its working men and women, as well as its street children, in their everyday activities. As he was fond of saying, he wanted to "shed some light on those people who are never in the spotlight." Thus much of his work features images from his own territory, the banlieue or suburbs and outskirts of Paris where he lived all his adult life. A patient artist, Doisneau could wait for the desired effect to occur naturally before shooting his photo, or he could arrange and direct his models, making them appear to be caught spontaneously. Fond of humorous juxtaposition in his pictures, Doisneau often sought to contrast opposites: rich and poor, the powerful and the powerless, young and old, popular art and fine art, and the erotic and virtuous. "Robert Doisneau's great gift was to bring about an awareness of the phenomenal to our ordinary rational sense through his photographer's eye," wrote Margarita Nieto in Art Scene Online.
In his over twenty books and hundreds of exhibitions, Doisneau attempted to make the ordinary extraordinary, taking what might be considered banal images and turning them into "signposts of our time," as Nieto further commented. In a late-in-life letter to his biographer, Peter Hamilton, Doisneau wrote: "In these ordinary surroundings which were my own I happened to glimpse some fragments of time in which the everyday world appeared freed from its heaviness. To show such moments would take a whole lifetime." As a contributor for Contemporary Photographers noted, Doisneau developed "a personal variant of 'decisive instant' street photography in order to reveal fragile moments of urban existence that are buoyant with warmth, feeling, and wit." Among many famous images from Doisneau are the photographs Two Children Fetching Milk, Children in Place Hebert, The Last Waltz of July 14, 1959, The Sidelong Glance, The Bride's Ribbon, and The Kiss at the Hotel de Ville. Some of these were staged, some relied on plain good luck, and others were the result of immense patience bred of a time when film was scarce and each shot had to count. "One of the great photographers of the last century" as Peter Marshall described him in About Photography, Doisneau provides an endlessly fascinating examination of the human comedy in photographs noted for their intensity as well as their sometimes absurd and surreal elements.
Middle Class Origins
Robert Sylvain Doisneau was born on April 14, 1912, in Gentilly, near the outskirts of Paris, and separated from that capital at the time by an area known as the "Zone," a suburban wasteland upon which no permanent construction was allowed. This zone had been taken over by children and transients at the time of Doisneau's youth, providing a strange and edgy industrial wilderness and playground. For the young Doisneau this zone was immensely preferable to the stuffy middle class home provided by his father and stepmother in nearby Gentilly. Graduating in 1929 from the Ecole Estienne, where he studied lithographic engraving, Doisneau discovered that the skills he had developed were no longer much in demand. He finally was able to secure a position in a graphic studio doing lettering, but soon gravitated to the photo studio the company was developing. He became an assistant to the head of the photography department, Lucien Chauffard, and upon the departure of that man, Doisneau took over the studio. He also began to take his own photographs in 1929, borrowing a camera and going out onto the streets and shooting cobblestones or advertising placards, as well as detail-rich shots of the zone. These early photos demonstrate the usual timidity of a beginning photographer, however, as there are none that include people. Doisneau's early attempts at photography caught the attention of his uncle, the mayor of Gentilly, who gave the young man his first commission, taking pictures for the city council bulletin. From this commission Doisneau earned enough to buy his own camera, a Rolleiflex. He continued to use this type of camera for the next two decades.
In 1931 Doisneau left this position to become an assistant to Andre Vigneau, a well-known sculptor and photographer. Here the suburban youth came into contact with bohemian Paris as represented by men in the arts and literature such as the painter Raoul Dufy, and the writers Georges Simenon and Jacques Prevert. He also discovered the work of other photographers, such as Man Ray, Andre Kertesz, and Brassai. Their work was a revelation for Doisneau; soon Doisneau was taking photos of both Paris and the suburbs at Gentilly which feature children and adults, but still at an anonymous distance. The architectural and other man-made backgrounds are important in these pictures, however, as in his 1932 picture of two small children on their way to fetch a pail of milk from the store. Two Children Fetching Milk shows the small, muffled children in the distance on a street corner of Gentilly. They are dwarfed by the vertical lines of the buildings surrounding them, and the older sister holds the hand of her younger sibling. As Marshall noted, "clearly she is acting as mother to the younger child. The idea of mother and child makes this pair seem even smaller than they are, as too does their low position due to the slope of the pavement up towards the shop door at the right." Doisneau, in this early shot, shows his concern for the proper framing, for getting all details just right in a seemingly spontaneous photo. Also in 1932 Doisneau placed his first photos in the media. A series of his images taken at the flea market appeared in the newspaper L'Excelsior. However, his year of compulsory military service ended this period of his artistic apprenticeship.
The Sunday Artist
Returning from the military, Doisneau discovered that he no longer had a position with Vigneau. Instead he was once again helped out by the photographer Chauffard, who got him a job working under him in the new photographic department of the car manufacturer Renault. Doisneau worked for Renault from 1934 to 1939. For him this job was a simple necessity to earn his bread and butter. His real life took place on Sundays when he could roam the streets of Paris or the suburb of Montrouge, where he took an apartment in 1937 upon his marriage, and take photos as opportunities presented themselves. From these years come amusing and sometimes satirical images, such as Papa's Aeroplane, in which a very respectable looking, derby-hatted father is pushing his son in a miniature, flower-bedecked airplane on wheels. Other street scenes show barge workers, children drawing on the side of an old building, a street musician and his somewhat suspicious audience, and market girls being pulled on a trolley meant for fruits and vegetables. In all of these images, Doisneau employs his sense of comic juxtaposition.
At Renault he also came into direct contact with the working class. During the labor unrest of the later 1930s, Doisneau finally shucked off the last of his petit-bourgeois values and became directly involved in a strike at Renault, siding with the workers over management. Meantime, he also began to expand the market for his work, joining the Rapho photo agency as a part-time freelancer. At home he set up his own darkroom, and so busy did he become with his own work, that he was often late for work at Renault in the mornings. To cover up his tardiness, he developed what he thought was a foolproof method to fake the time clock record. But management at Renault had been keeping its eye on him ever since his involvement in the strike against the company. They discovered his fraudulent behavior and Doisneau was fired in 1939. As a result, he was forced to become a full-time freelancer.
The War and Beyond
The beginning of World War II in 1939 put an end to this freelancing for a time. Called up for service, Doisneau was soon out on sick leave. Back in Paris, he and his wife and first child had no income. He and his family, like many other Parisians, left for the country, but within months were back in Montrouge. Throughout the war years Doisneau earned a precarious living by selling post cards of engravings and sites dealing with the life of Napoleon. He also was commissioned to do the portraits of various scientists for a book. In addition, he returned to his original vocation, engraver, to forge identity papers and other documents for the French resistance.
During the bleak years of the war, he also continued to take photos of the streets of Paris and the suburbs, but now, with film rationed, he had to take great care in the arranging of such images. No longer could he afford to leave composition to chance; each frame had to count. From this necessity Doisneau developed a technique that he would use for the rest of his life, carefully orchestrating shots, and then employing various technical means, such as a slow shutter speed to create a blur of passing pedestrians, in order to give his pictures a candid effect. One of his better known images from the war years is Fallen Horse, from 1942. In it, Doisneau pictures a horse that has fallen on the icy city streets. A crowd has gathered and urges the animal to get to its feet. The white horse in the photo is meant to represent France, fallen to its enemy. Other images of these years take advantage of the extremely cold years Paris experienced during World War II; Doisneau took images of Paris draped in snow that present an atypical view of the city. So severe were the restrictions on film during this time that at the moment of liberation Doisneau had only two rolls of film, each with twelve exposures. Nonetheless, he was able to create some of the most lasting images of the liberation of Paris, a tribute to his skill at finding exactly the right shot at the right time.
With the end of hostilities in 1945, Doisneau found work at first with the ADEP photo agency, working with other photographers such as Henri Cartier-Bresson and Robert Capa. After years of restrictions on news, Paris was suddenly populated by dozens of papers all hungry for photographic images. Soon Doisneau left ADEP and returned to the Rapho agency. From 1945 to 1960 Doisneau contributed to numerous publications in France, but was little known outside of his native country. He collaborated with writers of the day, including Blaise Cendrars. Together these two published the classic La Banlieue de Paris in 1949, which was something of a self-portrait, depicting the world of Doisneau's youth. The book gathered over fifteen years of his work. Other collaborative efforts included work with texts by Prevert and Robert Giraud. By day, he made a living contributing to Life and Vogue, while at night he began investigating the Paris and Parisians that were marginalized: bistro habitues, dancers, and street people.
From the immediate post-war years come some of Doisneau's most famous images. The Sidelong Glance of 1948 was taken from a hidden position inside an art shop displaying a picture of a naked woman in the window. Doisneau captures a gentleman quickly glancing at the nude while his wife admires another painting. Perhaps his most famous picture, The Kiss at the Hotel de Ville, is from 1950 and was part of a series shot for Life magazine. Shot with models and intended to look candid, the photo became the subject of a lawsuit in the early 1990s when the original
model tried unsuccessfully to gain part of the royalties from the millions of reproductions made from the image. Other work for Life and similar publications brought him into contact with personalities of the time, such as Pablo Picasso and the writer Colette, whose portraits he shot. Doisneau also worked for Vogue from 1949 to 1952 as a full-time staff photographer. Through this job, he became acquainted with high-society circles. However, he did not have as much sympathy for these people as he did for the common people in the streets of Paris.
The 1950s saw Doisneau's fame spreading outside of his native country as he earned commissions in England. Still, he was not very well known internationally. Prizes, including the Kodak Prize and Niepce Prize, came his way. His work appeared in one-man shows and group exhibitions such as the 1952 Family of Man show curated by American photographer Edward Steichen. By the 1960s, however, Doisneau and photography in general "suffered something of an eclipse," as Jean-Claude Gautrand noted in the book Robert Doisneau: 1912-1994. Nonetheless, Doisneau continued his methodical and insightful work. As Marshall noted, "In the 1960s, Doisneau began to feel that much of the Paris he loved was being demolished and set out—as [the early French photographer, Eugene] Atget had 60 years earlier—to record what was left before it disappeared." Doisneau now focused on the heart of Paris rather than on its suburbs.
By the 1970s a new generation was discovering Doisneau's work and he was honored with his first retrospective exhibition, Trois secondes de'eternite (Three Seconds of Eternity). The title of the exhibition comes from the following statement by Doisneau, quoted in the book of the exhibition: "Some days the mere fact of seeing feels like perfect happiness. You feel as if you're floating along. The cops stop the traffic to let you through and you feel so rich you long to share your jubilation with others—you've got more than enough for yourself after all. The memory of such moments is my most precious possession. Maybe because there've been so few of them. . . . A hundredth of a second here, a hundredth of a second there—even if you put them end to end they still only add up to one, two, perhaps three seconds snatched from eternity."
Wins the Grand Prix de la Photographie
In 1983 Doisneau won the Grand Prix de la Photographie, an event that turned "the modest photographer into a media star of the first order," according to Gautrand. Suddenly his photographs were being reprinted in numerous books and on posters. But fame did not change Doisneau; he continued to record the day-to-day life of Paris and environs. In 1984 he joined in a project with several other photographers sponsored by the French planning agency, DATAR, to record the landscape of his beloved banlieue, including his hometown of Gentilly. Yet much of the charm had died in the suburbs by this time. As Doisneau lamented to his biographer Peter Hamilton in Robert Doisneau: The Life of a Photographer, "Cement has replaced the plaster tiles and wooden hutments. . . . There's nothing to catch the light."
If you enjoy the works of Robert Doisneau
If you enjoy the works of Robert Doisneau, you may also want to check out the following:
The photography of Henri Cartier-Bresson, Eugène Atget, and Brassaï, who are known for their images of Paris.
Doisneau continued to take photographs right up to the time of his death in 1994. He left behind a large photographic legacy. If he made no major breakthroughs in technique, he did create a particular Doisneau-ian vision. "Throughout his long life," commented Gautrand, "Doisneau excelled in capturing the real, but usually softened it with a dose of cauterizing humor." His images of Paris and of its suburbs have entered the popular imagination; a young couple kissing in front of Paris's city hall had become so universal that one middle-aged French couple believed it to be of them. Doisneau, contacted by these people in the early 1990s, did not have the heart to tell them it was not of them but of a pair of hired models. His reluctance to disappoint them resulted in a lawsuit to seek royalties. But for Doisneau, the ensuing legal wrangle was worth it. It was a world and a vision he had created and could not destroy. "Doisneau's legacy," concluded Gautrand, "is a few minutes of eternity frozen onto photographic paper; a few minutes of wonder and emotion through which he contrives to tell us, image by image, stories full of poetry and humor."
Biographical and Critical Sources
Beaton, Cecil, and Gail Buckland, The Magic Image, Viking (New York, NY), 1990.
Doisneau, Robert, Robert Doisneau: Three Seconds ofEternity, teNeues Publishing (New York, NY), 1973.
Gautrand, Jean-Claude, Robert Doisneau: 1912-1994, Taschen (London, England), 2003.
Hamilton, Peter, Robert Doisneau: Retrospective, Tauris (London, England), 1991.
Hamilton, Peter, Robert Doisneau: The Life of a Photographer, Abbeville Press (New York, NY), 1995.
Pollack, Peter, The Picture History of Photography, Thames and Hudson (London, England), 1977.
Roumette, Sylvain, Robert Doisneau, Thames and Hudson (London, England), 1991.
Connaissance des Arts (Paris, France), February, 1973, Eveline Schlumberger, "Doisneau le Photographe fait Tourner Thuiland le Pottier."
Economist, April 11, 1992, "Small Heroisms: The Camera and Life," p. 92.
Infinity, February, 1959, Peter Pollack, "Robert Doisneau."
Le Figaro (Paris, France), August 5, 1974, Michel Nuridsany, "Robert Doisneau."
Le Photographe (Paris, France), October, 1965, Yves Lorelle, "Le Secret du Succes pour l'Agence Rapho."
Los Angeles Times, May 4, 1990, Suzanne Muchinic, "A Splashy Parade of Treats in Palm Springs," p. 22; January 16, 2000, Diane Haithman, "The Kiss Heard 'Round the World," p. 65.
Maclean's, December 18, 1995, Bruce Wallace, "The Welfare War," pp. 26-27.
New York Times, April 6, 2001, Margarett Loke, "Robert Doisneau—Photographs, 1931-1985," p. E2; February 22, 2002, Margarett Loke, "An Assembly of Skewed Images Dancing Out of a Dream State," p. E2.
Nieman Reports, spring, 2001, Peter Turnley, "Parisians," p. 87.
People, May 31, 1993, Larry Writer, "More Than Just a Kiss: A Bitter Legal Battle Erupts over a Classic Photo of Romance on a Paris Street," pp. 73-74.
Photo (Paris, France), August, 1974, Jean-Jacques, "Naudet Harbutt et Doisneau."
Photo-Cinema (Paris, France), January, 1973, Jean-Jacques Deutsch, "Le Paris de Robert Doisneau."
Photo Revue (Paris, France), February, 1975, Jean Leroy, "Robert Doisneau."
Phototribune (Paris, France), no. 1, 1969, Jean-Claude Gautrand, "Robert Doisneau et la Recherche des Moments Perdus."
Time, May 10, 1993, Ginia Bellafante, "Stolen Smooch?," p. 75.
Washington Post, June 3, 1993, William Drozdiak, "Climax of 'The Kiss'; Famous Photo's Luster Marred by Paris Verdict," p. C2.
About Photography,http://www.photography.about.com/ (May 26, 2004), Peter Marshall, "Photography Directory of Notable Photographers: Robert Doisneau."
Ackland Art Museum,http://www.Ackland.org/ (May 25, 2004).
Art Scene Online,http://www.artscenecal.com/ (1999), Margarita Nieto, "Robert Doisneau."
Grove Art Online,http://www.groveart.com/ (2004), Philip Cooper, "Doisneau, Robert."
People, April 18, 1994, Sabina McFarland, Robert Doisneau, p. 63.
Time, April 11, 1994, "Died, Robert Doisneau," p. 23.*