Skip to main content

Maria de Molina (d. 1321)

Maria de Molina (d. 1321)

Queen-regent of Castile and Leon . Name variations: Maria of Molina; Mary of Molina. Born between 1260 and 1270 in Spain; died on July 1, 1321, in Castile; daughter of Alphonse de Castilla de Molina and Mayor Alfonsa de Meneses; married cousin Sancho IV the Fierce (1258–1295), king of Castile and Leon (r. 1284–1296), in July 1281 or 1282; children: Isabel de Limoges (1283–1328); Ferdinand IV, king of Castile and Leon (r. 1296–1312, who married Constance of Portugal ); Alfonso (1286–1291); Enrique (1288–1299); Pedro (1290–1319), regent of Castile; Felipe or Philip (1292–1327); Beatrice of Castile and Leon (1293–1359, who married Alphonso IV of Portugal).

Beatrice of Castile and Leon (1293–1359)

Queen of Portugal . Name variations: Beatriz. Born in Toro, Spain, in 1293; died on October 25, 1359, in Lisbon, Portugal; daughter of Maria de Molina (d. 1321) and Sancho IV, king of Castile (r. 1284–1296); married Alphonso IV, king of Portugal (r. 1325–1357), on September 12, 1309; children: Maria of Portugal (1313–1357, who married Alphonso XI of Castile); Alfonso or Alphonso (1315–1315); Diniz or Denis (1317–1318); Pedro also known as Peter I (1320–1367), king of Portugal (r. 1357–1367); Isabel (1324–1326); Joao (1326–1327); Eleanor of Portugal (1328–1348, who married Peter or Pedro IV of Aragon).

Maria de Molina, queen and regent of Castile, was born between 1260 and 1270, the daughter of Alphonse de Castilla de Molina and Mayor Alfonsa de Meneses . Of noble birth, Maria married Sancho of Castile (later Sancho IV) and was the mother of Ferdinand IV. When Sancho died, Maria retained her authority as regent of the kingdom in her young son's name. She proved to be a successful regent, a difficult accomplishment given the great number of would-be usurpers of the Castilian throne that she was forced to war against. Maria de Molina's strong central government and her own strength and determination kept Castile intact until Ferdinand came of age. Maria was both an effective, astute ruler and a popular one. Her son Ferdinand did not share her talent for rule, and quickly lost control of his court, nobility, and subjects. When the situation became desperate upon Ferdinand's death in 1312, Maria was called upon by the people of Castile to restore order and to act again as regent, this time for her infant grandson Alphonso XI.

sources:

Echols, Anne, and Marty Williams. An Annotated Index of Medieval Women. NY: Markus Wiener, 1992.

Salmonson, Jessica. The Encyclopedia of Amazons. NY: Doubleday, 1991.

Laura York , Riverside, California

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Maria de Molina (d. 1321)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Maria de Molina (d. 1321)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maria-de-molina-d-1321

"Maria de Molina (d. 1321)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maria-de-molina-d-1321

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.