Maria II (Maria da Glória), 1819–53, queen of Portugal (1834–53), daughter of Peter IV (Pedro I of Brazil). Pedro, having succeeded to the Portuguese throne on the death (1826) of his father, John VI, granted a constitutional charter to the Portuguese and then abdicated in favor of Maria. In order to quiet the claims of her uncle, Dom Miguel, it was arranged that Maria be betrothed to him and placed under his regency. Miguel promised to abide by Pedro's charter, but in 1828, before Maria had arrived in Europe from Brazil, he convened a Cortes, procured an offer of the throne, and set out to rule in absolutist fashion. Maria's father, having abdicated the Brazilian throne, recruited an army from the liberal opponents of Miguel; he also had the assistance of the English. The armed forces gathered and sailed from the Azores to Oporto in 1832. The subsequent fighting in the so-called Miguelist Wars was severe. Miguel capitulated in 1834 after the English had defeated his fleet. Maria's reign was torn by dissension, revolutions, and counterrevolutions. Some progress was made, however, in the building of roads, the first railroad, and schools. Maria married (1836) Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Ferdinand II of Portugal). She was succeeded by her son Peter V.
"Maria II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maria-ii
"Maria II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maria-ii
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.