Norwegian ski jumper
In Norway, Birger Ruud is a national hero. He was not only a champion ski jumper; he was also a fierce patriot. He won two Olympic gold medals and one silver. In world championships, he won three gold medals and one silver. During World War II he joined the Resistance and used his skiing skills to subvert the Nazis who had invaded his country. His skill was the result of a combination of inborn athletic ability and the terrain of his homeland.
A Family of Ski Jumpers
Ruud was born on August 23, 1911, in Kongsberg, Norway. Kongsberg is a mining town situated southwest of Oslo. Ruud and his brothers Sigmund and Asbjorn grew up skiing and jumping and participating in all manner of winter sports. Something in their upbringing contributed to producing three of Norway's best ski jumpers. Sigmund and Asbjorn won many titles of their own. Of the three, Birger would make the biggest mark in the world of international competition.
In 1931 Ruud won the first of three World Championships. That year he also set the world record in ski jumping when he registered a 76.5-meter jump in Odnesbakken, Norway. His gold at the World Championships
set the stage for his performance at the 1932 Lake Placid Olympics. He surpassed the distances of his countryman, Hans Beck, and was awarded the gold medal.
After the Olympics, Ruud continued his winning streak. In 1934, while practicing jumps after competition in Planica, Slovenia, he became the first man to jump 92 meters. He also won first place in the ski jump at the Holmenkollen competition, the premier Norwegian skiing competition. In 1935, he won his second gold medal in the World Championships.
At the Garmisch-Partenkirchen Olympics, held in 1936, Ruud competed in both the Nordic and the Alpine events, an unusual choice. Most skiers at that time specialized in one or the other, rarely attempting both. His attempt was successful though. The Alpine events combined downhill and slalom and Ruud placed first in the downhill. He would have placed first in the slalom and won the event but he missed a gate and was penalized 4.4 seconds. The penalty moved Ruud from first place to fourth. Despite not placing in the Alpine events, Ruud was able to defend his medal in the ski jump.
Ruud continued to compete internationally, and in 1937 won his third gold medal in the World Championships. Norway recognized his accomplishments by awarding him the Holmenkollen Medal, the highest possible award given by Norway to skiers. In 1938, he traveled to southern California to compete in the First Annual Southern California Open Ski Jump Meet. It was the first ever such meet held on man-made snow in southern California.
The War Intervenes
In 1940, the war came to Norway. Despite repeated promises not to occupy Norway, the Germans invaded in April. Ruud opposed the occupation, as did much of the populace. One of his methods of protesting was to hold unsanctioned ski events to raise money for the resistance. For his part in these ski events, Ruud was arrested in 1943 and placed in the Grini concentration camp. After his release in 1944, Ruud began to work for the resistance. The British would drop artillery and other supplies in the mountains and countryside. Ruud would use his skill and strength as a skier to locate the dropped items.
One of the consequences of World War II was the cancellation of both the 1940 and the 1944 Olympics. Sports scholars and fans alike wonder what other awards could have come to Ruud had he had the opportunity to compete in those games. Fortunately, Ruud was able to prove his abilities one more time in the 1948 St. Moritz Olympics. By this time he was thirty-six years old, which was considered too old to compete. He went to the games as the ski jump coach, but ended up competing in the event and winning a silver medal for his effort.
|1911||Born August 23 in Kongsberg, Norway|
|1932||Competes in Lake Placid Olympics|
|1936||Competes in both Alpine and Nordic events in Garmisch-Partenkirchen Olympics|
|1938||Competes in First Annual Southern California Open Ski Jump Meet|
|1940||Germany occupies Norway|
|1943||Stages illegal ski competitions; arrested and sent to Grini concentration camp for 18 months|
|1948||Attends St. Moritz Olympics as coach|
|1986||Kongsberg Ski Museum that Ruud helped establish opens|
|1994||Carries Olympic flag at Lillehammer Olympics|
|1998||Dies on June 13|
After Ruud retired from Olympic competition, he spent the rest of his life promoting skiing to the youth of Norway. He was also partially responsible for establishing the Kongsberg Ski Museum. His achievements are recognized throughout Norway, where he is considered by some to be the Jesse Owens of ski jumping. Although his name is not common outside skiing circles or in the United States, he is a national hero to the Norwegians. His commitment and achievements in the ski jump brought notoriety to his country. His patriotism in the face of German occupation earned him the respect of his countrymen.
Bisher, Furman. "The Winter Olympics Lillehammer, Norway, the Games: Norwegian Ruud was durable, patriotic." Atlanta Constitution (February 26, 1994).
"Norway Names Best Ten Athletes of the Century." Xinhau News Agency (January 16, 1999).
Rogers, Thomas, and Janet Nelson. "Scouting: Honoring Ruud." New York Times (April 6, 1985): 16.
"Ski: Norwegian Ski Jump Legend Dies." AAP News-feed (June 13, 1998).
Alpenglow Ski History. http://www.alpenglow.org/ski-history/notes/news/news-patrol-race.html (January 31, 2003)
"Birger Ruud." International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/athletes/heroes/bio_uk.asp?heros=73289 (January 23, 2003).
International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/facts_uk.asp?OLGT=2=1936 (January 18, 2003).
"A Little English." Trolldalen Times http://www.azstarnet.com/public/nonprofit/trollda/nlse (January 23, 2003).
"Pac Rim Presents Ski History of California." Pacific Rim Alliance. http://www.pacificrimalliance.org/F.PublicAffairs/SkiHistory/TimelineSoCal.html (January 18, 2003).
Sun Valley Guide: Winter 2001. http://www.sunvalleyguide.com/w01/w01locallore.htm (January 31, 2003).
Sketch by Eve M. B. Hermann
Awards and Accomplishments
|1931||Breaks ski jumping record with 76.5-meter jump in Odnesbakken, Norway; triple world champion|
|1932||Gold medal in ski jumping at Lake Placid Olympics|
|1934||First place in ski jump at Holmenkollen competition; breaks his own ski jumping record with 92 meter jump in Planica, Slovenia|
|1935||Triple world champion|
|1936||Gold medal in ski jumping at Garmisch-Partenkirchen Olympics|
|1937||Awarded Holmenkollen Medal; triple world champion|
|1948||Silver medal in ski jumping at St. Moritz Olympics|
|1985||Inducted into Rolex International Ski Racing Hall of Fame|
|1999||Named one of Norway's ten best athletes of 20th century|
"Ruud, Birger." Notable Sports Figures. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ruud-birger
"Ruud, Birger." Notable Sports Figures. . Retrieved February 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ruud-birger
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.