Skip to main content
Select Source:

La Crosse

La Crosse (lə krôs), city (1990 pop. 51,003), seat of La Crosse co., W Wis., at the foot of high bluffs on the Mississippi, where the La Crosse and Black rivers meet; inc. 1856. Metal products, machinery, building materials, apparel, transportation equipment, and foods and beverages are made in La Crosse. A French fur-trading post was there in the late 18th cent. Later, the city had a thriving lumber industry. A campus of the Univ. of Wisconsin, Viterbo Univ., and a U.S. fish hatchery and experimental farm are in La Crosse. The city also has a zoo, an aquarium, and a historical museum.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"La Crosse." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"La Crosse." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/la-crosse

"La Crosse." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/la-crosse

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

lacrosse

lacrosse (ləkrôs´), ball and goal game usually played outdoors by two teams of 10 players each on a field 60 to 70 yd (54.86 to 64.01 m) wide by 110 yd (100.58 m) long. Two goals face each other 80 yd (73.15 m) apart; each cone-shaped goal is 6 ft (1.8 m) square at the mouth and 7 ft (2.13 m) deep. The ball, about 8 in. (20 cm) in circumference and about 5 oz (.14 kg) in weight, is made of hard rubber. The stick, or crosse—from which the game gets its name because of the traditional stick's resemblance to a bishop's crosier—consists of a handle and an adjustable, pocketlike meshwork head in which the ball is received, carried, and passed. Teams direct their play toward advancing the ball so as to hurl or kick it into the opponent's goal (each goal counting one point). The team scoring the most points wins. Only the goalkeeper may touch the ball with his hands, and no other player may enter the crease—the 18 ft x 12 ft (5.49 m x 3.66 m) area surrounding the goal. Lacrosse is a game of rough physical contact; personal and technical fouls lead to disqualification or to temporary suspensions (as in ice hockey) that leave the penalized team a player short. A referee and a judge are the officials. A game is divided into four quarters of 25 min each; two overtime periods of 5 min each are played in the event of a tie. The game was developed as a war-training and spiritual exercise by North American natives. Called "baggataway," it was violent and had few fixed rules. Adopted and named lacrosse by French settlers, it became increasingly popular. In 1856 the Montreal Lacrosse Club was organized, and in 1860 the rules of the game were standardized. After Parliament adopted (1867) lacrosse as the national game of Canada, the National Lacrosse Association (now the Canadian Lacrosse Association) was established as the governing body of the sport. Lacrosse has attracted a wide amateur following since that time, and was formerly (1920–32) played professionally in Canada by 12-man teams. Introduced into the United States in the 1870s, it is now a popular college, school, and club game in the eastern United States. The United States has dominated international play, in which Canada, Australia, and the Iroquois Nation have also been prominent. Women's lacrosse, developed in England in the early 1900s, is less rough than the men's game. Box lacrosse, an indoor version played in hockey rinks, is played professionally in Canada and the United States.

See A. M. Weyand and M. R. Roberts, The Lacrosse Story (1965); P. E. Hartman, Lacrosse Fundamentals (1968).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"lacrosse." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"lacrosse." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lacrosse

"lacrosse." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lacrosse

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

lacrosse

lacrosse Ball game that originated among the Iroquois Native Americans of Canada and the USA. It is played by teams of 10 male or 12 female players. Players carry sticks that have a thonged meshwork head like a flexible scoop. The ball may be conveyed, passed, kicked, or hit with the stick, but only goalkeepers can handle the ball. Lacrosse became Canada's national game in 1867.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"lacrosse." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"lacrosse." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lacrosse

"lacrosse." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lacrosse

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

lacrosse

la·crosse / lə ˈkrôs; ˈkräs/ • n. a team game, originally played by North American Indians, in which the ball is thrown, caught, and carried with a long-handled stick having a curved L-shaped or triangular frame at one end with a piece of shallow netting in the angle.

lacrosse stick

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"lacrosse." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"lacrosse." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lacrosse-0

"lacrosse." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lacrosse-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

lacrosse

lacrosse XVII. f. F. (le jeu de) la crosse ‘(the game of) the hooked stick’ ((O)F. crosse prob. of Gmc. orig.; cf. CRUTCH).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"lacrosse." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"lacrosse." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lacrosse-1

"lacrosse." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lacrosse-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

lacrosse

lacrosseacross, boss, Bros, cos, cross, crosse, doss, dross, emboss, en brosse, floss, fosse, gloss, Goss, joss, Kos, lacrosse, loss, moss, MS-DOS, Ross, toss •LaosÁyios Nikólaos, chaos •Eos • Helios •Chios, Khíos •Lesbos • straw boss • Phobos • rooibos •extrados • kudos • reredos • intrados •Calvados • Argos • Lagos • logos •Marcos • telos •Delos, Melos •Byblos • candyfloss •tholos, Vólos •bugloss • omphalos • Pátmos •Amos, Deimos, Sámos •Demos • peatmoss • cosmos • Los Alamos • Lemnos • Hypnos • Minos •Mykonos • tripos • topos • Atropos •Ballesteros, pharos, Saros •Imbros • criss-cross • rallycross • Eros •albatross • monopteros • Dos Passos •Náxos • Hyksos • Knossos • Santos •benthos •bathos, pathos •ethos • Kórinthos

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"lacrosse." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"lacrosse." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lacrosse

"lacrosse." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lacrosse

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Lacrosse

Lacrosse

Lacrosse is a game that is entirely North American in its origins. The native peoples of the continent played the game known variously as baggataway, and the "little brother of war" for thousands of years prior to the arrival of European explorers in the mid-1500s. For the native people, lacrosse was a game that was entirely preparatory for the battles of warfare. Lacrosse took its present name from the French missionaries. They gave the sport its name by virtue of the resemblance between the game's distinctive hooked wooden stick and the crosier, or crosse, carried by church bishops.

The native North American version of lacrosse was played over distances spanning village to village, with contests lasting for a number of days. The games were extremely violent and serious injury and death to the participants was a common occurrence. Modern lacrosse is not a deadly sport, but it does reflect a measure of the physicality and the athleticism required in the native game.

Modern lacrosse has two distinct variants. The best-known version on a worldwide basis is field lacrosse, a game played by both men and women on a field the approximate size and dimensions of a soccer field. The men's and women's games have significant rule differences however. Each team has ten players on the field at any time. Each player also has a stick, with a netted pocket at the end with which to catch the lacrosse ball. The ball is constructed of hard Indian rubber, and the object of the game is to throw the ball into the opposing goal. The goal is 6 ft2 (0.5 m2), and it is situated in a crease that is a 9-ft (0.8 m) radius around the goal. Each team plays with a goalkeeper, defensemen (sometimes known as "long sticks," by virtue of their specialized sticks used to assist in keeping attackers from the goal), midfielders, and attack players. The defense and the attack must each remain on that half of the field, while the midfielders are permitted to roam the entire field.

A shot fired by a lacrosse player may exceed 100 mph (160 km/h); the game is fast paced and the men's game is a physical one. The players wear a protective helmet with a full face, shoulder pads that include a protective girdle, padded gloves, and cleats suited to the playing surface, which is either natural grass or an artificial surface. Players are allowed to use their shoulder to body check an opponent who is within 9 ft (2.74 m) of the ball. Players are permitted to use their sticks to check the stick of the ball carrier. The defense players are permitted to use their longer sticks to jab at an opponent. In the women's version, any physical contact other than that incidental to the play is illegal; the stick check is the prime defensive tactic in the women's game.

The basic tactics of field lacrosse are similar to aspects of both basketball and soccer. The spacing of the players and the use of teammates to screen opposing defenders to create advantageous passing angles are important. Lacrosse is one of the quintessential team games, and it is rare for a single player to dominate. Noted field lacrosse players include Jim Brown, the legendary football star who was an All-American collegiate lacrosse player while at Syracuse University in the late 1950s, and the twin brothers, Gary and Paul Gait, who dominated play in both collegiate lacrosse and a number of senior level and professional leagues for 20 years.

The United States is the preeminent nation in the relatively small world of international field lacrosse. The game is a prominent sport at the collegiate level, particularly in the eastern United States, and there is a national championship convened by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) each year. The U.S. has dominated the international field lacrosse championships; other prominent nations are Canada, Australia, and Great Britain.

The second lacrosse variant is box lacrosse, a game that evolved in Canada during the late 1800s. Using hockey rinks that were generally unused in the summer months, box lacrosse is played on a surface approximately 200 ft (60 m) long, by 85 ft (25 m) in width, six players per side—five runners and a goal-tender. The same ball as that used in field lacrosse is employed in the box game; the players, with the exception of the goaltender, wear similar equipment as their field counterparts. The chief distinctions between the two games are the manner in which the opposing player can be hit, and the dimensions of the goal crease. The 6-ft (1.8 m), semicircular crease in box lacrosse permits the offensive players to get much closer to the goaltender, who wears full body equipment as a result of being exposed to very hard shots delivered at close range. The goaltender must possess significant hand-eye coordination and also make long passes from the crease to initiate offense by way of the fast break. Box lacrosse games are typically high scoring encounters.

The significant tactical difference between box and field lacrosse is the ability of a defensive player to check the opposition player who possesses the ball with a cross check, delivered with two hands on the stick, anywhere between the opponent's shoulders and waist, except for a blow to the back. Box lacrosse is a very physical game for this reason, but as all players are flat footed on the playing surface and in a relatively balanced position when the check is delivered, the forces of the check do not often tend to result in serious injury to the recipient player, when contrasted with other contact sports such as ice hockey or football.

Long the virtually exclusive domain of Canada, box lacrosse is now played professionally in the National Lacrosse League with 12 teams based in various American and Canadian cities. The professional players come from both the field and the box lacrosse traditions. The World Indoor Lacrosse championship, with teams from eight countries was first contested in 2003.

see also Ice hockey; International federations; National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Lacrosse." World of Sports Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Lacrosse." World of Sports Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/sports-fitness-recreation-and-leisure-magazines/lacrosse

"Lacrosse." World of Sports Science. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/sports-fitness-recreation-and-leisure-magazines/lacrosse

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.