Many sociological typologies are descriptions of polar types or extremes: one obvious example is Ferdinand Tönnies's distinction between Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (association). Sociologists are also prone to polarization when describing processes of social change–as, for example, in Karl Marx's account of the polarization of classes in capitalist societies into the ‘two great hostile camps’ of bourgeoisie and proletariat.
"polarization." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/polarization
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