bull-roarer, an instrument consisting of slit board or chamber attached to a cord. When swung around in the air, it emits a deep, vibrant, "whirrrrrr" -like sound. The mythology of some Native South Americans (e.g., the Tupí-Guaraní) indicates that women originally controlled such sacred instruments of power as bull-roarers, flutes, or trumpets, but, through some calamity (often involving women's inability to hunt), lost possession of these instruments to men. The control of such instruments legitimizes adult male power. Thus, at puberty, Bororo boys are shown how to use bull-roarers, and they participate in secret rituals with the adult men. There are separate ceremonies in which men taunt women with bull-roarers, sexual songs, and clay phalluses. Taboos exist against women seeing these instruments, which are normally concealed in the men's house but removed for ceremonies. Women's real attitude toward bull-roarers is difficult to gauge; some secretly admit to have seen the sacred instruments, but open defiance of the taboos would invite severe sanctions and is avoided. Among some groups, the instrument is merely a toy. The bull-roarer is also important among the Australian aborigines. See matriarchy.
"bull-roarer." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bull-roarer
"bull-roarer." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bull-roarer
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
"bull roarer." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bull-roarer
"bull roarer." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved September 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bull-roarer