French physician who pioneered the field of blood pathology and wrote the first textbook on internal medicine. Andral studied the blood of both animals and humans, and was the first to describe the proportions of the constituents of normal blood. He noted that disease affects the blood and that bodily functions were interdependent. This insight fueled his vigorous opposition to bloodletting, a practice performed by most physicians during his day. Andral earned his medical degree from the University of Paris in 1821 and was appointed professor of medicine in 1828, eventually becoming head of the pathology department.
"Gabriel Andral." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gabriel-andral
"Gabriel Andral." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. . Retrieved November 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gabriel-andral
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.