Fronczek, Janusz (ca. 1926)
Fronczek, Janusz (ca. 1926)
Polish mining engineer of Warsaw who was a medium for telekinetic, teleplastic, and luminous phenomena. Eric J. Dingwall, then research officer of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR), had three sittings with Fronczek in August and September 1923 and was impressed. Lights appeared to "come from the medium's mouth and to remain apparently unsupported in space two or three inches from the lips. The brilliancy of each appearance varied, not only as compared with others but apparently in itself when still in view," Dingwall said.
Fronczek was invited to London to sit at the SPR. He arrived April 17, 1925. According to the report of V. J. Woolley and Dingwall in the society's Proceedings (vol. 36), before he entered the séance room he disrobed entirely and offered himself unreservedly for examination. He sat in a pajama suit, and his hands and legs were controlled. He preferred silence or low conversation during the sitting.
The phenomena seemed to be preceded by vigorous grinding of the teeth. Greenish, bright spherical sparks were seen, lights appeared on Fronczek's arm and jerked up toward his mouth. The floating lights were about one to two inches from his lips; a bell was telekinetically moved while both hands and both feet were under control.
Throughout the sittings the medium constantly rubbed his chest with his hands (still controlled) and soon afterward a light appeared. Since the investigators could not discover the modus operandi for the supposed fraudulent production of the phenomena, they summed up their conclusions as follows:
"(1) At three sittings out of a total of nine given by Mr. Fronczek at the Society's rooms, phenomena occurred which purported to be produced supernormally.
(2) At one of these three the phenomena consisted of the movements of small luminous objects provided by us for the purpose and we suppose these movements to have been brought about by the employment of a cushion held in the medium's mouth.
(3) At the other two sittings the phenomena consisted of the appearance of small luminous objects which appeared to come from the medium's mouth and to be attached to it, but we were unable to discover their nature or the method of their introduction into the seance room."
"Fronczek, Janusz (ca. 1926)." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fronczek-janusz-ca-1926
"Fronczek, Janusz (ca. 1926)." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Retrieved November 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fronczek-janusz-ca-1926
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.