Luginin, Vladimir Fedorovich
Luginin, Vladimir Fedorovich
(b. Moscow, Russia, 2 June 1834 ; d. Paris, France, 26 October 1911)
Luginin graduated from the Mikhailov Artillery School in St. Petersburg in 1853 and the Artillery Academy in 1858.
In 1854-1856 Luginin took part in the Crimean War as an artillery officer. In the 1860’s he was active in politics. He was a member of Velikoruss, a secret revolutionary-democratic organization, and was in close contact with Alexander Herzen, N. P. Ogarev, and Mikhail Bakunin. At one time Herzen suggested that Luginin should join the staff of the publication Kolokol (“The Bell”). In 1867 Luginin abandoned all political activity and devoted himself entirely to science. From 1874 to 1881 he worked in his own laboratory in St. Petersburg, and from 1882 to 1889 in Paris. Between 1889 and 1905 Luginin’s scientific and educational activities were centered around Moscow University, where with his own funds he established the first thermochemical laboratory in Russia, which today bears his name.
Luginin’s interest in thermochemistry was influenced by Berthelot, with whom he published a number of articles. Their thermochemical research on the heats of neutralization of citric and phosphoric acids (1875) proved these acids to be tribasic. In 1879 he investigated the effect of exchanging the hydrogen atoms with electronegative groups as well as with NH2 groups at the heat of neutralization of substances belonging to various classes of organic chemistry. From 1880 Luginin engaged in important research to determine the heats of combustion of organic compounds.
In 1894, Luginin published a monograph entitled Opisanie razlichnykh metodov opredelenia teplotgorenia organicheskikh soedineny (“Description of Various Methods for Determining the Heats of Combustion of Organic Compounds”). This led the development of methods and techniques in thermochemical research. During 1894-1900, Luginin investigated the specific heats and latent heats of evaporation of various compounds in liquid forln. He supplied a significant amount of exact data for the calculation of the heats of formation of organic substances. His work demonstrated the limits of applicability of Trouton’s rule.
Luginin’s writings include “Étude thermochimique sur1’effet produit par les substitutions de Cl et de NO2 et de NH2 dans les corps de différentes groupes de la chimie organique,” in Annales de chime et de physique, 5th ser., 17 (1879), 222-268 ; “Sur la mesure de chaleur de combustion des matiéres organiques,” ibid.,27 (1882), 347-374; Opisanie razliclurykh nretodov opredelenia teplot gorenia organicheskikh soedineny (Moscow, 1894) ; and Méthodes de calorirnétrie, usitées au laboratoire therrnique dc l’Univresité de Moscou (Geneva, 1908), written with A. Shukarev.
A biography is Y. 1. Soloviev and P. 1. Starosselsky, Vlardinur Fedorovich Luginin (Moscow, 1963).
Y. I. Soloviev