glyphosate N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine: a herbicide, marketed as Roundup and Tumbleweed, that kills a wide range of plants but shows little persistence in soil and has low toxicity to animals. If applied to the leaves it is rapidly translocated to the rest of the plant, and hence can penetrate the roots of even hardy perennials. It works by blocking the synthesis of aromatic amino acids, so that treated plants are unable to manufacture proteins and other key metabolites. Glyphosate inhibits the activity of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, which occurs only in plants and microorganisms. Certain crops, notably soya bean, have been genetically engineered to give them resistance to glyphosate, by inserting genes for an EPSPS enzyme from Agrobacterium. These ‘Roundup-ready’ crops, which can be sprayed with the herbicide without being affected, are now widely grown in North America and elsewhere.
More From encyclopedia.com
Carbon Fixation , C4 pathway C4 pathway (Hatch–Slack pathway) The metabolic pathway followed in the light-independent phase of photosynthesis by tropical plants, such… Genetic Engineering , Humans have been modifying the genetic constitution (genomes) of crop plants for thousands of years, since the very beginning of agriculture. In the… Insectivorous Plant , insectivorous plant (carnivorous plant) Any of several plants that have poorly developed root systems and are often found in nitrogen-deficient sandy… Plant , Plant A plant is any organism in the kingdom Plantae. Kingdoms are the main divisions into which scientists classify all living things on Earth. The… Abscisic Acid , abscisic acid (abscisin II, dormin) A terpenoid (see TERPENE) compound that is one of the five major plant hormones. Although it is synthesized princ… Plant Biochemical Genetics , The appearance and chemical composition of all life are determined by the action of genes functioning in the context of the conditions surrounding th…
About this article
Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article
You Might Also Like