bubble pulse When an explosion or airgun is triggered in water, the resulting gas bubble oscillates with decreasing energy with each oscillation generating a pressure pulse, known as the ‘bubble pulse’. Unwanted bubble pulses can be prevented by setting off the source sufficiently close to the surface to allow the bubble to vent before it collapses, a method which, although spectacular, is inefficient. Where an array of tuned airguns is fired at depth, the individual airgun bubble pulses destructively interfere to provide the desired source signature. A knowledge of the bubble pulse period, T, is thus required for each source and this can be calculated using the Rayleigh-Willis formula such that: T = (0.0452Q1/3)/((D/0.3048) + 33)5/6, where Q is the source energy in joules and D is the water depth in metres to the bubble centre.
More From encyclopedia.com
Geothermal Energy , Introduction Geothermal energy is natural heat produced within the earth that can be removed and used commercially. Reservoirs of hot water and steam… Kinetic Energy , Energy is "capacity (or ability) to do work," and work is "the result of a force acting through some distance." A car running into the rear of a stal… Turbine , A turbine is any of various rotary machines that convert the kinetic energy in a stream of fluid (gas or liquid) into mechanical energy by passing th… Storage , Storage Energy storage is having energy in reserve for future needs. While it takes millions of years to create huge energy stores in the form of coa… Solar Energy , In a broad sense, most energy that individuals use is some form of solar energy. Other renewable energy sources (such as wind, hydropower, and wood)… Groundwater , Many of Earth's groundwater supplies are threatened, mainly by human population growth and contamination. Groundwater is freshwater that resides unde…
About this article
Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article
You Might Also Like