Skip to main content

bubble pulse

bubble pulse When an explosion or airgun is triggered in water, the resulting gas bubble oscillates with decreasing energy with each oscillation generating a pressure pulse, known as the ‘bubble pulse’. Unwanted bubble pulses can be prevented by setting off the source sufficiently close to the surface to allow the bubble to vent before it collapses, a method which, although spectacular, is inefficient. Where an array of tuned airguns is fired at depth, the individual airgun bubble pulses destructively interfere to provide the desired source signature. A knowledge of the bubble pulse period, T, is thus required for each source and this can be calculated using the Rayleigh-Willis formula such that: T = (0.0452Q1/3)/((D/0.3048) + 33)5/6, where Q is the source energy in joules and D is the water depth in metres to the bubble centre.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"bubble pulse." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bubble pulse." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bubble-pulse

"bubble pulse." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved November 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bubble-pulse

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.