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2C-B (Nexus)

2C-B (NEXUS)

OFFICIAL NAMES: 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B)

STREET NAMES: Nexus, bromo, afterburner bromo, utopia, Venus, spectrum, BDMPEA, toonies, MFT, erox, cloud nine zenith

DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS: Schedule I, hallucinogen


OVERVIEW

2C-B is a relatively new drug to emerge on the club or rave scene. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), there is a significant rise in usage in the United States over the past several years. The drug is already popular in the Netherlands, where much of the supply comes from, as well as Germany, Switzerland, and South Africa.

Known popularly as Nexus, 2C-B is a hallucinogen that was legal in the United States until 1995, when it was classified as a Schedule I drug under the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Other Schedule I drugs include opium, heroin, and cocaine. It is a synthetic substance, meaning it is manufactured from chemicals and does not occur naturally. Since 2000, large quantities of the drug have been seized by local police and federal agents in Las Vegas, Chicago, Kansas City, South Dakota, Virginia, and Maine, indicating a nationwide distribution network.

The effects of 2C-B are unpredictable and can be radically violent. It is a hallucinogen that produces euphoria and heightened sensual awareness, including vision, hearing, smell, and touch. Low doses of 4–6 mg make the user become passive and relaxed. High doses of 20–30 mg can cause extreme hallucinations and morbid delusions. The effects usually last from four to eight hours, although they can last for up to 12 hours.

The drug can produce profound distortions in the way a person perceives reality. People under the influence of 2C-B see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that are not real. It can also produce sudden and intense emotional swings. The drug works by disrupting the normal functions of the serotonin system. Serotonin is a substance widely distributed in nerve cells and acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain.

The chemical properties of 2C-B most closely resemble those of mescaline, and 2C-B is 10 times more powerful than another popular club drug, MDMA (ecstasy). It is considered both a hallucinogen and an entactogen, a term that means "touching within." The visual effects, including hallucinations, can be more intense than those produced by LSD or "magic mushrooms" (psilocybin), both powerful and potentially deadly drugs in their own right.

History

Dr. Alexander Shulgin, an American chemist and pharmacologist, first produced 2C-B in 1974. Shulgin has discovered or synthesized more than 150 drugs, most of them hallucinogens. Shulgin has drawn the displeasure of U.S. law enforcement agencies for publishing the chemical formulas for all of his drug discoveries. He has also written of his personal experiences while using the drugs.

2C-B was introduced to psychotherapists in the United States in the late 1970s. A German pharmaceutical company became the first to manufacture and sell the drug worldwide under the trade name Nexus, and was marketed as a treatment for impotency and frigidity. Several other foreign pharmaceutical companies followed suit, marketing the drug under the brand names of Eros and Performax. By 1993, the United States had become the largest market for 2C-B, which was sold without the need for a prescription.

The drug caught the attention of U.S. drug authorities and the American public in December 1993 when Newsweek reported it had become one of the most popular drugs at all-night raves and dance clubs frequented by teenagers and young adults. Since it did not require a prescription, the drug was sold in adult book and video stores, drug paraphernalia stores called "head" shops, bars, and nightclubs. It was sold in yellow, unmarked capsules for $17–$25 each. Users could also buy 10 capsules in match-box-like packages that included instructions for use.

Although it was not yet a controlled substance, DEA agents closed 2C-B manufacturing laboratories in California in 1986 and 1994 and in Arizona in 1992. On June 5, 1995, the drug was placed on Schedule I of the CSA. The drug's effects are similar to other Schedule I hallucinogens; it has a high potential for abuse, and has no accepted medical uses. 2C-B is banned or controlled in Great Britain, Canada, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and South Africa.

2C-B hit the Netherlands at about the same time it found its way into the U.S. drug scene. It was not covered under the Dutch Opium Act, under which drugs are deemed illegal. Tablets of the drug were manufactured by a Dutch firm and were available without a prescription at so-called "smart-drug" shops. The abuse of 2C-B skyrocketed in a short time. The drug was finally scheduled on the list of illegal drugs in mid-1997, and production in the Netherlands all but ceased. Since then, use has dropped substantially and the tablets are difficult to find, according to a 1999 article in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology.

When the Netherlands banned 2C-B, two offshoots of the drug, para-methylthioamphetamine and 4-ethyl-thio-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-T), were introduced. Since they are not specifically named in the Dutch Opium Act, they are not banned. These offshoots have not been reported to be used in the United States.

CHEMICAL/ORGANIC COMPOSITION

2C-B is a synthetically produced hallucinogen that is most closely related to mescaline. It acts primarily on the central serotonin receptors of the brain. Serotonin is a chemical derived from the amino acid tryptophan, and widely distributed in tissues. It acts as a neurotransmitter, constricts blood vessels at injury sites, and may affect emotional states. 2C-B works by interfering with serotonin in the brain.

INGESTION METHODS

2C-B is taken orally and is generally available in pill, capsule, or powder form. The powdered form is usually mixed with a drink, although it is sometimes inhaled through the nose. Users report its effects are more intense when snorted. It is less commonly found as a sugar cube or a liquid, and placed in drinks. It is sometimes combined with MDMA (ecstasy) and called a "party pack" or with LSD and referred to as a "banana split." The average dose of 2C-B sold on the street is 10–25 mg and costs $10–$30 each. The pills can be off-white with brown specks; small, off-white, thick pills stamped with a bull head logo; pink, red, or purple pills; and clear, yellow, or gray and blue capsules.

THERAPEUTIC USE

In the 1970s, 2C-B was used in patients by a small number of psychotherapists in the United States. These therapists reported the drug created a warm, empathetic bond between them and their patients. The therapists also said the drug helped break down a patient's ego defenses and inner resistances, allowing the patient to get in touch with suppressed emotions and repressed memories. However, medical usage was limited and had all but disappeared by the time 2C-B was made a Schedule I substance in 1995. Today, 2C-B is not recognized by most in the medical community as having any therapeutic usefulness.

In the past several years, a few medical researchers have stated they believe some hallucinogens may have valid medical uses, particularly in psychiatry. Also, studies are underway in Baltimore and New Mexico on the possible uses of hallucinogens to treat drug and alcohol addictions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the studies. Recent advances in science have created opportunities for using hallucinogens as tools in learning how the brain functions.

USAGE TRENDS

Based on the amount of 2C-B seized in drug raids, use of the drug appears be on the increase in the United States. Teenagers and young adults who frequent raves are the most common users. The rise in 2C-B use has coincided with the increasing popularity of raves, which cater to those under age 21. It is often sold as MDMA or used in conjunction with other so-called club drugs.

Drug treatment programs across the United States that specialize in treating substance abusers under 18 years old were surveyed about their current population of patients. The survey found their clients use a variety of drugs, although alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogens were the most frequently abused substances. For most youths in treatment, hallucinogen consumption is part of an extensive drug use history. Counselors rarely see adolescents who abuse only hallucinogens. Anecdotal reports from some counselors indicate as many as 80% of clients have used hallucinogens. Others report diagnosing as many as three or four cases per week of adolescents with hallucinogen-related perceptual disorders. The reports attribute the perception disorders to the number of "trips," including consecutive multiple doses, that teenagers often take.

Renewed interest in hallucinogens coincides with a perception of reduced risk and greater peer support for use, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) studies show. In 1991, 90% of high school seniors reported that they disapproved of hallucinogen use even once or twice. That number had dropped to 83% in 1994 and to 80% in 1996.

Scope and severity

It is difficult to track the scope and severity of 2C-B use in the United States for the following reasons:

  • The drug has only been illegal since 1995, when it was classified as a Schedule I drug under the CSA.
  • Few state and federal agencies track 2C-B use specifically, usually lumping it in with either club drugs or hallucinogens.
  • The drug is often sold and used in combination with other drugs such as LSD, MDMA, ketamine, and methamphetamines. Also, it is often sold as MDMA, especially at raves.
  • Standard drug tests, including urinalysis, do not currently detect the presence of 2C-B.

Some conclusions can be drawn based on existing data from state and federal agencies involved in drug control and treatment. The distribution of 2C-B has been sporadic since it became scheduled in 1995, according to a 2001 report by the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC). Beginning in 1991, though, seizures of large quantities of 2C-B have increased. In the 2001 report, the NDIC warned local law enforcement agencies they should consider 2C-B an emerging drug threat.

Local police agencies and federal drug enforcement officials began noticing a sharp increase in 2C-B seizures and arrests beginning in December 1999 when the drug surfaced in Virginia. Police in Las Vegas first came across 2C-B in May 2000 when they discovered it was being sold in nightclubs as MDMA. By May 2001, Las Vegas police undercover agents had purchased 1,900 tablets of 2C-B, many of which came from southern California. At about the same time, police were making arrests for possession of 2C-B in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Maine; and Chicago. Within a few months, arrests were made in Kansas, Missouri, and Pennsylvania. By 2002, the drug was reported nationwide, and drug officials said they did not expect to see a reversal of this trend in the near future.

The 2001 NDIC report stated that the use of 2C-B is likely to increase due to its marketing as MDMA and the rapidly increasing demand for synthetic club drugs at raves and dance clubs.

Age, ethnic, and gender trends

Monitoring the Future study. The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study does not specifically track 2C-B use. However, some insight can be gained by looking at the statistics for two categories that are tracked: hallucinogens and MDMA (ecstasy). These categories are important because 2C-B is a hallucinogen, and 2C-B users often take the drug in combination with or as a replacement for MDMA.

Student use of MDMA increased in 2001 from the previous four years, according to the study of eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-grade students across the United States. Among eighth graders, 5.2% reported in 2001 that they had used MDMA at least once in their lives. This compared to 4.3% in 2000 and 3.2% in 1997. The rate among tenth graders was 8% in 2001, compared to 7.3% in 2000 and 5.7% in 1997. The rate among high school seniors was11.7% in 2001, up from 11% in 2000 and 6.9% in 1997.

Use of hallucinogens decreased in 2001 from the previous four years. In 2001, 4% of eighth-grade students reported they had used a hallucinogen sometime in their life. This compared to 4.6% in 2000 and 5.4% in1997. Among tenth graders, the rate was 7.8% in 2001,8.9% in 2000, and 10.5% in 1997. Students in the twelfth grade had rates of 12.8% in 2001, 13% in 2000, and 15.1% in 1997.

National Household Study on Drug Abuse. The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) found that hallucinogen use is on the rise among the general U.S. population, especially among people under age 26. In 1999, the survey found 1.4 million Americans were new users of hallucinogens, the highest number since 1965. The survey found 669,000 new users were youths ages 12–17, 604,000 ages 18–25, and only 127,000 were age 26 and over. In 2000, 83% of hallucinogen users were under age 26, according to the survey.

In the 2000 survey, 19.3% of respondents between the ages of 18–25, and 5.8% between the ages of 12–17 reported using a hallucinogen at least once. As is true for the MTF survey data, NHSDA data indicate that much of this increase has been among whites and Hispanics. The greatest concentration of reported lifetime use is found among two groups: white youths ages 18–25 (19%) and Hispanics ages 18–25 (9%).

The survey also identified hallucinogen users today as mainstream college students. Private and public campuses


are equally likely to report hallucinogen use, while religious schools are most likely to report little or no use. Larger campuses and institutions in urban areas report the widest range of hallucinogen use. This is likely because of greater student accessibility to the off-campus urban rave and club scene near larger schools.

Based on these and other studies, a profile emerges of the typical 2C-B user: usually white but sometimes Hispanic, medium to high family income levels, 18–26 years old, from an urban area, regularly attends all-night dance parties or raves. Use of hallucinogens was higher among males than females, especially those in the 18–25 age group. A user of 2C-B is also very likely to abuse other drugs.

MENTAL EFFECTS

2C-B is capable of producing a number of varying effects based on dose. A few milligrams of increase in dose can produce a tremendous difference in the effect. Doses as low as 4 mg can make users become passive and relaxed. Users report the effects are similar to those of ecstasy. At slightly higher doses of 8–10 mg, the drug's stimulating effects are increased and a completely intoxicated state is produced. Mild hallucinations may also be experienced. High doses of 20–30 mg produce overt and vivid hallucinations. Doses higher than 30 mg can produce paranoia, extremely frightening hallucinations, and morbid delusions.

The visual effects of 2C-B can be much more intense than those produced by LSD or psychedelic mushrooms. Music can heighten the visual effects of the drug. Moving objects leave "trails" behind them, and colors may appear from nowhere. Surfaces may appear covered with geometric patterns and may seem to be moving.

The effects of 2C-B can last for up to 12 hours, depending on dose. They usually start 20–90 minutes after ingestion and last for three to four hours before starting to decrease. It usually takes two hours to come down from the drug, and the aftereffect can last for four hours.

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

There is little information about the toxicity of 2C-B as there are only a limited number of studies done on the drug. However, some conclusions can be draw about its physiological effects based on studies of drugs that are chemically similar to 2C-B. The drug binds to serotonin receptors in the brain, which is why it has hallucinogenic properties. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter or "messenger" substance that carries information through the peripheral and central nervous systems.

2C-B does not have the same chemical properties as amphetamines, so it does not seem to deplete the serotonin levels in the brain. This means it probably does not damage nerves as amphetamines do. Since 2C-B chemically resembles mescaline, it is likely to increase the heart rate, elevate blood pressure, and raise body temperature. In some people, 2C-B can cause nausea, vomiting, trembling, chills, and nervousness.

The drug is extremely dose-sensitive and even a small increase in dose (a few milligrams) can produce radically different, unpredictable, and potentially violent effects. The most noticeable physical effects are anxiety, muscle clenching, poor coordination, shaking, dilated pupils, and increased blood pressure and heart rate.

2C-B differs in several ways from other commonly abused drugs such as heroin or cocaine. Although their reality-distorting effects may make them attractive and reinforce repeated usage, 2C-B is not physiologically addictive in the same way that opiates or even sedatives are. That means once tolerance is established, 2C-B does not produce long-term physiological craving after its effects have worn off. They also differ in the duration of drug action. Unlike the effects of cocaine, which last for only minutes, and those of heroin, which last for a couple hours, the active effects of 2C-B can continue for up to 12 hours. Only methamphetamine can produce a similar long-lasting effect from a single ingestion.

Harmful side effects

Side effects can vary but the most common is gastrointestinal distress such as nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea. There have also been reports of allergic reactions, in which the symptoms include red, itchy, watery eyes, runny or stuffy nose, fever, coughing, and sneezing. Harmful mental effects include agitation, anxiety, difficulty in concentrating, and frightening thoughts and visions long after use has stopped. It has also been known to trigger latent psychological and mental problems.

Some users also report episodes of hallucinogenpersisting perception disorder (HPPD), commonly known as flashbacks. These episodes are spontaneous and repeated, and sometimes involve continuous recurrences of some of the sensory distortions experienced while on the drug. The experiences may include hallucinations, but usually consist of visual disturbances such as seeing false motion at the edges of the field of vision, bright white or color flashes, and halos or trails around or behind moving objects.

Typically, HPPD is persistent and may remain unchanged for years after a person has stopped using the drug. Because HPPD symptoms are easily mistaken for those of other neurological disorders such as stroke or brain tumors, it is often difficult to diagnose. There is no established treatment for HPPD, although some antidepressant drugs may reduce the symptoms. Psychotherapy also is sometimes helpful.

Flashbacks may occur days, months, or years after using the drug, and may include seeing intense colors and other hallucinations. They can be sparked by the use of another drug, stress, fatigue, or physical exercise. The flashbacks can range from mild to intense and include feelings of anxiety. They can last several minutes.

Using 2C-B when a person is sick, depressed, emotionally upset, or angry increases the risk of having a bad experience. Persons with psychiatric disorders, epileptic disorders, and blood circulation problems also run an increased risk of having adverse reactions to the drug. Since 2C-B is a hallucinogenic, it impairs mental functions, greatly increasing the risk of accidents. Persons on 2C-B should not drive, operate machinery, or engage in other potentially dangerous activities.

Bad trips. While using 2C-B, or "tripping," the person can have strong feelings of anxiety or fear. The hallucinatory effects can be unpleasant and disturbing. They can also be so intense that the person feels they are losing control or going crazy. When negative feelings dominate the experience, it is commonly called a "bad trip." The reasons for these frightening experiences are not known. They are particularly common among first-time users.

Having a bad trip can cause the user to panic, which can lead to dangerous behavior. Paranoia and feelings of superiority sometimes develop. When a bad experience occurs, the user needs to be reassured or calmed until the immediate effects have passed, which can be eight hours or longer, depending on the dose.

To help a person who is having a bad trip, make sure the user and those around him or her are safe; move and speak to the person in a calm and confident manner; call the individual by name and remind the person who he or she is, if needed; do not leave the person alone. Medical attention and physical restraint are sometimes required if the user becomes violent. The negative feelings usually leave when the drug wears off.

Long-term health effects

There have been no specific studies into the long-term health effects of using 2C-B. However, experience from other drugs such as MDMA, LSD, and mescaline suggest that regular use can leave the user feeling fatigued, disoriented, and anxious. Users may also experience depression, psychotic syndromes, visual illusions, panic attacks, and depersonalization. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take the drug, as there is the possibility it could damage the fetus or infant.

REACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS OR SUBSTANCES

Since 2C-B is relatively new and not yet widespread to the club or rave scene, little is known about its effects when taken with other drugs. 2C-B is often used in combination with other illicit drugs, particularly amphetamines, MDMA (ecstasy), and other so-called club drugs, including ketamine, GHB, and methamphetamine. It is often said by users that 2C-B heightens or increases the effects of other drugs. When taken with ecstasy, it is said by users to intensify feelings of exhilaration through the entire length of intoxication. Feelings of nausea and anxiety are likely to intensify when combined with ecstasy. Using an illicit drug itself can be dangerous and using it with one or more other illicit substances only increases the dangers. Alcohol can increase the effects of 2C-B, which also increases the risks for harm.

2C-B should not be taken by persons who use a specific category of antidepressants called monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These include phenelzine (Nardil), isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix). It also should not be used by diabetics.

TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION

2C-B is not physiologically addictive. However, chronic users can become psychologically dependent on 2C-B. The treatment regimen for chronic users of 2C-B is the same as for other hallucinogens. A combination of therapy methods is often used, including individual counseling, group therapy, and medication. Treatment is usually more effective if it is tailored to an individual's needs and other circumstances.

PERSONAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES

Studies and surveys in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain show that people who use any type of illicit drug generally tend to do worse in school and are more likely to drop out. These people in turn, are more likely to end up in low-paying jobs or become part of the welfare system. A number of studies show that people who abuse drugs are much more prone to illness, particularly viruses and other infections.

Hallucinogens powerfully affect the brain, distorting the way a person's five senses work and changing the impressions of time and space. People who use these drugs often may have a hard time concentrating, communicating, or telling the difference between reality and illusion. 2C-B can disrupt a person's ability to think, communicate, and act rationally or even to recognize reality. There is medical evidence that heavy use of hallucinogens can impair a user's memory and concentration.

Users of 2C-B will develop a tolerance over time. If they increase the dose, they face greater risk of having a bad trip or disturbing flashbacks. A large number of users of 2C-B also do other drugs, which increases their risks for physical and psychological problems.

People who become terrified of losing their minds or dying while on 2C-B should seek professional help. In extreme cases, when users become agitated, hurt themselves, or become suicidal, sedation and hospitalization may be required.

Students who are convicted of using or possessing 2C-B can be denied federal scholarships and loan guarantees, which may affect their ability to get a college education. In 2001, about 14,000 high school graduates were denied federal aid, at least temporarily, because of prior drug convictions.

LEGAL CONSEQUENCES

A person convicted of possessing a Schedule I drug such as 2C-B can get a sentence ranging from no jail time to life imprisonment, and a fine of $5,000 to $1 million.

In Wisconsin, a first-time conviction in a state court for possession of 2C-B can result in a sentence of up to a year in prison and a fine of up to $5,000. A person convicted of sale or possession for sale of 2C-B can get a prison sentence of up to 30 years and a fine of up to $1 million. If the sale is to a minor, sentencing can be doubled at the discretion of the court. In neighboring Illinois, possession of 2C-B is a Class 4 felony, and conviction brings a prison sentence of from one to three years and a fine of up to $25,000. Conviction in a South Dakota state court of possession or sale of a small amount of 2C-B carries a minimum sentence of a year in prison and a fine of up to $10,000. Sale or distribution to a minor carries a minimum prison term of five years.

California's Proposition 36

In 2000, California voters approved a ballot measure that allows state courts to sentence first-and second-time drug use offenders to rehabilitative treatment rather than jail or prison. The measure, Proposition 36 (Prop.36), also known as the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act, took effect July 1, 2001. As of March 1, 2002, more than 15,000 persons had been referred to treatment under Prop. 36. The law mandates probation and drug abuse treatment for offenders instead of jail time. Persons sentenced under Prop. 36 are required to spend up to a year in a state-approved treatment regimen. Treatment can include outpatient care, inpatient treatment at a halfway house, and drug education and prevention classes.

The philosophy behind the law is two-fold. First, it frees up jail and prison space for persons convicted of violent offenses. Second, it mandates treatment and education that a drug user may not get in jail. Prop. 36's overall goal is to reduce repeat drug use and lower crime rates. Drug policy officials say it is too early to determine if the California program is successful in achieving either of these goals. A similar measure, Proposition 200, was approved by voters in Arizona in 1996.

In California, the state Drug Policy Alliance issued a report in 2002 that stated the program appears to be effective in meeting its goals. However, it listed several areas of concern. These included a lack of diversity in treatment options, a lack of state licensing regulations for halfway houses, and a high rate of drug offenders failing to appear for treatment in several counties, where the failure to appear rate was close to 50%.

Federal guidelines, regulations, and penalties

The federal government and state governments use schedules as a way of classifying controlled substances such as 2C-B and other hallucinogens. A drug is placed on a particular schedule based on how safe it is, its potential for medical use, and its potential for abuse. A drug's schedule plays a primary role in determining penalties for illegal possession or sale of the drug.

Drugs are placed in Schedule I because they have a high potential for abuse, have no current accepted medical use, and because the drug is unsafe even under medical supervision. Besides 2C-B, other Schedule I drugs include heroin, marijuana, and LSD.

2C-B is a Schedule I substance and thereby falls under the penalties associated with that group of drugs. Persons convicted of first-time possession of 2C-B in a federal court face up to a year in prison and a mandatory fine of at least $1,000 up to a maximum of $100,000. A first-time conviction for the sale or possession for sale of 2C-B by a federal court carries a prison sentence of up to 20 years and a fine of up to $1 million.

International penalties

In Canada, 2C-B is a scheduled drug under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. If convicted of possession of 2C-B, the maximum penalty is three years in jail and up to a $1,000 fine for a first offense. A conviction for sale of 2C-B carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison.

Great Britain regulates 2C-B under the Medicines Act. A conviction for possession of the drug carries an average sentence of two years and two months in prison and a fine of about $185. The maximum sentence is seven years in prison and an unlimited fine. The maximum penalty for selling 2C-B is life in prison and an unlimited fine.

In Australia, 2C-B is regulated by each state. In the state of Queensland, the penalty for possession of any illegal drug is one year in prison and a fine of $3,000, according to the Australian Drug Foundation. The trafficking or sale of 2C-B in Queensland carries a maximum sentence of 25 years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.

Japan's Health and Welfare Ministry ruled the drug had no legitimate medical uses and banned it in 1998 under the Narcotics Control Law. The maximum penalty for a conviction of possessing or using 2C-B is seven years in prison. The drug had been marketed in Japan and sold over the Internet under the name Performax. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified it as a Schedule II drug under the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In a recent report, WHO said 2C-B is likely to be abused enough as to constitute a "substantial" public health and social problem, warranting its placement under international control. The WHO report had no recommendations for penalties or treatment for abusers.

See also Club drugs; Ecstasy (MDMA); GHB; Ketamine; Methamphetamine

RESOURCES

Books

Barter, James. Hallucinogens (Drug Education Library). San Diego: Lucent Books, 2001.

Knowles, Cynthia R. Up All Night: A Closer Look at Club Drugs and Rave Culture. North Springfield, VT: Red House Press, 2001.

Periodicals

De Boer, D., et al. "More Data About the New Psychoactive Drug 2C-B." Journal of Analytical Toxicology (May-June1999): 227-228.

"The Death of the Party." FDA Consumer (March 2000): 14.

Grinspoon, Lester, and Rick Doblin. "Psychedelics as Catalysts of Insight-oriented Psychotherapy." Social Research (Fall 2001): 677-698.

Kintz, P. "Interpreting the Results of Medico-Legal Analyses in Cases of Substance Abuse." Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology (March 2000): 197.

Kowalski, Kathiann M. "What Hallucinogens Can Do to Your Brain." Current Health 2 (April 2000): 6.

Makenzie, Dana. "Secrets of an Acid Head (Research on Hallucinogenic Drugs)." New Scientist (June 23, 2001): 26.

Organizations

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5213, Bethesda, MD, USA, 20892-9561, (301) 443-1124, (888) 644-6432, [email protected], <http://www.drugabuse.gov>.

Ken R. Wells

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