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hydrofoil

hydrofoil, flat or curved finlike device, attached by struts to the hull of a watercraft, that lifts the moving watercraft above the water's surface. The term is often extended to include the vessel itself. Like an aircraft wing in its appearance and function, the foil develops lift as it passes through the water; the hull is raised above the surface, and the drag caused by the vessel's contact with the water is thereby reduced. Hydrofoil vessels are capable of traveling faster than 70 mi (113 km) per hr. They are used for ferries in many countries in Europe and Asia; in the United States they are used mostly for military purposes. In addition to offering greater speeds, such vessels do not pitch and roll as do conventional watercraft. Foils may be of the submerged or the surface-piercing type. On oceangoing passenger ships a type of hydrofoil called a stabilizer is used to minimize wave action on the vessel. The first hydrofoil vessel was built in 1905 by the Italian engineer Enrico Forlanini. In 1918, Alexander Graham Bell built the HD-4, a vessel 60 ft (18.3 m) long that attained a speed of 70.86 mi (114.03 km) per hr.

See C. Hook, Hydrofoils (1967); R. McLeary, Jane's Surface Skimmers (annually, 1968–); W. T. Gunston, Hydrofoils and Hovercraft (1969).

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hydrofoil

hy·dro·foil / ˈhīdrəˌfoil/ • n. a boat whose hull is fitted underneath with shaped vanes (foils) that lift the hull clear of the water to increase the boat's speed. ∎ another term for foil4 .

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hydrofoil

hydrofoil Boat or ship whose hull is lifted clear of the water, when moving at speed, by submerged wings. They usually have gas-turbine or diesel engines that power propellers or water jets. Speeds range from 30 to 60 knots.

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hydrofoil

hydrofoilboil, Boyle, broil, coil, Dáil, Doyle, embroil, Fianna Fáil, foil, Hoyle, moil, noil, oil, roil, Royle, soil, spoil, toil, voile •parboil • trefoil • jetfoil • airfoil •cinquefoil • milfoil • tinfoil • multifoil • aerofoil • hydrofoil •counterfoil • gargoyle • turmoil •charbroil • topsoil • subsoil

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Hydrofoil

Hydrofoil

The hydrofoil is a boat that possesses skilike pontoons (or foils), which are mounted on struts from below the hull. Early foils were U-shaped (and only partially submerged in water), but modern versions are V- or T-shaped (and fully submerged), which have been found to be much more stable and safe to operate. It is very similar to the hovercraft, because it moves in the boundary between air and water. It avoids drag by lifting itself out of the water, using wing-shaped structures called hydrofoils that extend into the water from the craft. These hydrofoils function like the wings on a plane, creating lift and flying the hull above the surface of the water.

The first person to work on this idea was the French priest Ramus in the mid-1800s. However, at the time a sufficient sized engine was not available that could supply sufficient thrust. In the 1890s, French Count de Lambert tried and failed to make a working model using a gasoline engine.

The first successful hydrofoil boats were created in the early 1900s. Enrico Forlanini (18481930), an Italian airship designer, built a small boat with hydrofoils in 1905. American scientist William E. Meacham described the theory behind hydrofoils in a 1906 article within Scientific American. Later, Forlanini showed Scottish-American scientist and inventor Alexander Graham Bell (18471922) a later model that impressed the famous American. Bell built one himself, based on Forlaninis patented design, and set a water-based speed record of 71 mph (114 km/h) with it in 1918. This record stood until the 1960s.

Although there were small improvements made over the next few decades, hydrofoils did not see commercial use until the 1950s, when German inventor and scientist Hans von Schertel developed his designs for passenger hydrofoils. Italy created their Supramar boats, and Russia and the United States developed hydrofoils with both commercial and military applications.

There have been experiments with various types of foils and different types of engines, including the gas turbine, diesel, gasoline, and jet engines.

The foils themselves have two distinct shapes. The surface-piercing models are V-shaped, so that part of the foil stays out of the water. This type is good for calm surfaces like rivers and lakes. The other foil is completely submerged. It usually consists of three foils extending straight down beneath the boat. Hydrofoils with this configuration need autopilots to keep them level. Whenever the boat shifts to one side, sensors send messages to flaps on the foils, which then adjust automatically to bring the boat back to a normal position.

Hydrofoils today are used by commuter services, fishery patrols, fire fighters, harbor control, water police, and air-sea rescues. For the military, hydrofoils can be excellent small submarine chasers and patrol craft.

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Hydrofoil

Hydrofoil

The hydrofoil is very similar to the hovercraft , because it moves in the boundary between air and water . It avoids drag by lifting itself out of the water, using wing-shaped structures called hydrofoils that extend into the water from the craft. These hydrofoils function like the wings on a plane, creating lift and flying the hull above the surface of the water.

The first person to work on this idea was a French priest, Ramus, in the mid-1800s. However, there was no engine that could supply sufficient thrust. In the 1890s, another Frenchman, the Count de Lambert, tried and failed to make a working model using a gasoline engine.

The first successful hydrofoil boats were created in the early 1900s. Enrico Forlanini, an Italian airship designer, built a small boat with hydrofoils in 1905. He showed Alexander Graham Bell a later model that impressed the famous American. Bell built one himself, based on Forlanini's patented design and set a water-based speed record of 71 mph (114 kph) with it in 1918. This record stood until the 1960s.

Although there were small improvements made over the next few decades, hydrofoils did not see commercial use until the 1950s, when Hans von Schertel, a German scientist, developed his designs for passenger hydrofoils. Italy created their Supramar boats, and Russia and the United States developed hydrofoils with both commercial and military applications.

There have been experiments with various types of foils and different types of engines, including the gas turbine , diesel, gasoline, and jet engines.

The foils themselves have two distinct shapes. The surface-piercing models are V-shaped, so that part of the foil stays out of the water. This type is good for calm surfaces like rivers and lakes. The other foil is completely submerged. It usually consists of three foils extending straight down beneath the boat. Hydrofoils with this configuration need autopilots to keep them level. Whenever the boat shifts to one side, sensors send messages to flaps on the foils, which then adjust automatically to bring the boat back to a normal position.

Hydrofoils today are used by commuter services, fishery patrols, fire fighters, harbor control, water police, and air-sea rescues. For the military, hydrofoils can be excellent small submarine chasers and patrol craft.

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Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

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