Logarithms
Logarithms
The logarithm of a positive real number x to the basea is the number y that satisfies the equation a ^{y } = x. In symbols, the logarithm of x to the basea is log_{a} x, and, if a ^{y } = x, then y = log_{a} x.
Essentially, the logarithm to basea is a function: To each positive real number x, the logarithm to basea assigns x a number y such that a ^{y } = x. For example, 10^{2} = 100; therefore, log_{10} 100 = 2. The logarithm of 100 to base10 is 2, which is an elaborate name for the power of 10 that equals 100.
Any positive real number except 1 can be used as the base. However, the two most useful integer bases are 10 and 2. Base2 , also known as the binary system, is used in computer science because nearly all computers and calculators use base2 for their internal calculations. Logarithms to the base10 are called common logarithms. If the base is not specified, then base10 is assumed, in which case the notation is simplified to log x.
Some examples of logarithms follow.
log 1 = 0 because 10^{0} = 1
log 10 = 1 because 10^{1} = 10
log 100 = 2 because 10^{2} = 100
log_{2} 8 = 3 because 2^{3} = 8
log_{2} 2 = 1 because 2^{1} = 2
log_{5} 25 = 2 because 5^{2} = 25
log_{3} = −2 because 3^{2} =
The logarithm of multiples of 10 follows a simple pattern: logarithm of 1,000, 10,000, and so on to base10 are 3, 4 and so on. Also, the logarithm of a number a to basea is always 1; that is, log_{a} a = 1 because a ^{1} = a.
Logarithms have some interesting and useful properties. Let x, y, and a be positive real numbers, with a not equal to 1. The following are five useful properties of logarithms.
1. log_{a}(xy ) = log_{a} x + log_{a}y, so log_{10}(15) = log_{10} 3 + log_{10} 5
2. log_{a} = log_{a} x − log_{a} y, so log (⅔) = log 2 − log 3
3. log_{a} x ^{r } = r log_{a} x, where r is any real number, so log 3^{5} = 5 log 3
4. log_{a} = −log_{a } x, so log (¼) = (−1) log 4 because ¼ = (4)^{1}
5. log_{a} a ^{r } = r, so log_{10} 10^{3} = 3
Logarithms are useful in simplifying tedious calculations because of these properties.
History of Logarithms
The beginning of logarithms is usually attributed to John Napier (1550–1617), a Scottish amateur mathematician. Napier's interest in astronomy required him to do tedious calculations. With the use of logarithms, he developed ideas that shortened the time to do long and complex calculations. However, his approach to logarithms was different from the form used today.
Fortunately, a London professor, Henry Briggs (1561–1630) became interested in the logarithm tables prepared by Napier. Briggs traveled to Scotland to visit Napier and discuss his approach. They worked together to make improvements such as introducing base10 logarithms. Later, Briggs developed a table of logarithms that remained in common use until the advent of calculators and computers. Common logarithms are occasionally also called Briggsian logarithms.
see also Powers and Exponents.
Rafiq Ladhani
Bibliography
James, Robert C., and Glenn James. Mathematics Dictionary, 5th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.
Young, Robyn V., ed. Notable Mathematicians, from Ancient Times to the Present. Detroit: Gale Research, 1998.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"Logarithms." Mathematics. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Logarithms." Mathematics. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/newswireswhitepapersandbooks/logarithms
"Logarithms." Mathematics. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/newswireswhitepapersandbooks/logarithms
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Logarithm
Logarithm
In the 1500s and early 1600s, although science, engineering, and medicine were flourishing, many people did not understand multiplication tables. Mathematicians, astronomers, navigators, and scientists were forced to spend a lot of time performing calculations, so that little time was left to work on experiments and new discoveries. Finally, around 1594 Scottish mathematician John Napier (1550–1617) produced a table of logarithmic, or proportionate, numbers.
How logarithms work
In the commonly known base 10 system, computations that involve very large numbers can become difficult, if not incomprehensible. Napier realized numbers could be more easily expressed in terms of powers. Thus 100 is equal to 10 multiplied by 10, written as 10^{2}. This is read as "10 squared" and means "10 to the power two."
To perform multiplication, numbers are converted into logarithms, the exponents added together, and the result converted back into base 10. Likewise, to perform division, two logarithmic exponents are subtracted, and the result converted back to base 10.
This innovative way of multiplying and dividing large numbers was a milestone event for mathematicians of the day. Napier's tables were published in 1614 and were put into use immediately, becoming an essential part of the mathematical, scientific, and navigational processes.
Logarithmic tables remained popular throughout the next several centuries and were used as the basis for many mechanical calculating devices. Relieved from much of their mental drudgery, scientists and mathematicians enjoyed new freedom in their work, allowing them to focus their attention on new scientific breakthroughs.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"Logarithm." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Logarithm." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/logarithm
"Logarithm." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/logarithm
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
logarithm
logarithm (lŏg´ərĬŧħəm) [Gr.,=relation number], number associated with a positive number, being the power to which a third number, called the base, must be raised in order to obtain the given positive number. For example, the logarithm of 100 to the base 10 is 2, written log_{10} 100=2, since 10^{2}=100. Logarithms of positive numbers using the number 10 as the base are called common logarithms; those using the number e (see separate article) as the base are called natural logarithms or Napierian logarithms (for John Napier). The natural logarithm of a number x is denoted by ln x or simply log x. Since logarithms are exponents, they satisfy all the usual rules of exponents. Consequently, tedious calculations such as multiplications and divisions can be replaced by the simpler processes of adding or subtracting the corresponding logarithms. Logarithmic tables are generally used for this purpose.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"logarithm." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"logarithm." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/logarithm
"logarithm." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/logarithm
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
logarithm
logarithm Aid to calculation devised by John Napier in 1614, and developed by the English mathematician Henry Briggs. A number's logarithm is the power to which a base must be raised to equal the number, i.e. if b^{x} = n, then log_{b} n = x, where n is the number, b the base and x the logarithm. Common logarithms have base 10, and socalled natural logarithms have base e (2.71828…). Logarithms to the base 2 are used in computer science and information theory.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"logarithm." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"logarithm." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/logarithm
"logarithm." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/logarithm
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
logarithm
log·a·rithm / ˈlôgəˌri[voicedth]əm; ˈlägə/ (abbr.: log) • n. a quantity representing the power to which a fixed number (the base) must be raised to produce a given number.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"logarithm." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"logarithm." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/logarithm0
"logarithm." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/logarithm0
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
logarithm
logarithm XVII. — modL. logarithmus, f. Gr. lógos ratio + arithmós number (cf. LOGOS, ARITHMETIC).
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"logarithm." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"logarithm." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/logarithm1
"logarithm." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/logarithm1
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
logarithm
logarithm •hansom, ransom, Ransome, transom
•Wrexham • sensum • Epsom • jetsam
•lissom • winsome • gypsum • alyssum
•blossom, opossum, possum
•flotsam • awesome • balsam • Folsom
•noisome • twosome
•fulsome • buxom • Hilversum
•irksome • Gresham • meerschaum
•petersham • nasturtium
•atom, Euratom
•factum
•bantam, phantom
•sanctum
•desideratum, erratum, postpartum, stratum
•substratum • rectum • momentum
•septum
•datum, petrolatum, pomatum, Tatum, ultimatum
•arboretum • dictum • symptom
•ad infinitum
•bottom, rockbottom
•quantum
•autumn, postmortem
•factotum, Gotham, scrotum, teetotum, totem
•sputum
•accustom, custom
•diatom • anthem • Bentham • Botham
•fathom • rhythm • biorhythm
•algorithm • logarithm • sempervivum
•ovum • William
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"logarithm." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"logarithm." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/logarithm
"logarithm." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved May 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/logarithm
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.