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carbonate

carbonate (kär´bənāt´, –nət), chemical compound containing the carbonate radical or ion, CO3-2. Most familiar carbonates are salts that are formed by reacting an inorganic base (e.g., a metal hydroxide) with carbonic acid. Normal carbonates are formed when equivalent amounts of acid and base react; bicarbonates, also called acid carbonates or hydrogen carbonates, are formed when the acid is present in excess. Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, and potassium carbonate, K2CO3, are widely used. Smelling salts is ammonium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is found in shells of animals and in Iceland spar, limestone, and marble; it is used in the production of lime (calcium oxide). Barium carbonate occurs as the mineral witherite. Magnesium carbonate occurs as magnesite and in dolomite (with calcium carbonate). Iron carbonate is a ferrous compound that occurs in nature as siderite. White lead used as a pigment in paints is basic lead carbonate. Only ammonium, potassium, and sodium carbonates are readily soluble in water. Alkali metal carbonates are stable when heated, but other carbonates decompose, releasing carbon dioxide. Carbonates also give off carbon dioxide when treated with dilute acids, e.g., hydrochloric acid.

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carbonate

car·bo·nate • n. / ˈkärbənət; -ˌnāt/ a salt of the anion CO32−, typically formed by reaction of carbon dioxide with bases. • v. / ˈkärbəˌnāt/ [tr.] [usu. as adj.] (carbonated) dissolve carbon dioxide in (a liquid): a carbonated soft drink. ∎ Chem. convert into a carbonate, typically by reaction with carbon dioxide. DERIVATIVES: car·bo·na·tion / ˌkärbəˈnāshən/ n.

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carbonate

carbonate Salt of carbonic acid, formed when carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water. Carbonic acid is an extremely weak acid and both it and many of its salts are unstable, decomposing readily to release CO2. Nevertheless, large parts of the Earth's crust are made up of carbonates, such as calcium carbonate and dolomite.

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carbonate

carbonateagnate, magnate •incarnate, khanate •impregnate •coordinate, subordinate •decaffeinate • paginate • originate •oxygenate •cachinnate, machinate •pollinate •contaminate, laminate •disseminate, ingeminate, inseminate •discriminate, eliminate, incriminate, recriminate •abominate, dominate, nominate •illuminate, ruminate •fulminate • culminate •exterminate, germinate, terminate, verminate •marinate • peregrinate • indoctrinate •chlorinate • urinate •assassinate, deracinate, fascinate •vaccinate • hallucinate • Latinate •procrastinate • predestinate •agglutinate • rejuvenate • resinate •designate • cognate • neonate •lunate • alienate • carbonate •hibernate • odonate • hyphenate •emanate •impersonate, personate •fractionate • detonate • intonate •consternate • alternate • Italianate •resonate

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